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Local or Grassroots Associations: Micro-Associations

  • Andri Soteri-Proctor
  • David H. Smith
  • Tereza Pospíšilová
  • Krishna Roka
  • YU Pengjie

Abstract

This chapter focuses on Local Grassroots Associations (LGAs; usually referred to simply as GAs; Smith 2000), beginning with issues of definition. LGAs are termed here micro-associations by Smith, the Handbook’s first editor. LGAs have also been termed the dark matter of the nonprofit sector (Smith 1997c), and as below the radar organizations (Soteri-Proctor 2011), because they are often overlooked and are difficult to find, sample, and study. LGAs, the oldest type of NPOs and dating from 10,000 years ago (Smith 1997b; see also Handbook Chapter 1), have been found in every contemporary society and in all earlier societies, properly studied, seeking a very wide variety of goals. They are discussed here in terms of their life cycles, purposive and analytical types, external linkages, internal structures and processes, leadership and management, prestige and power, and impacts. There is strong evidence that LGAs are growing in global prevalence, based on broader, ongoing processes such as population growth, increasing formal education, economic development, civil liberties, and other long-term global trends (Schofer and Longhofer 2011; Smith and Shen 2002).

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Copyright information

© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andri Soteri-Proctor
    • 1
  • David H. Smith
    • 2
  • Tereza Pospíšilová
    • 3
  • Krishna Roka
    • 4
  • YU Pengjie
    • 5
  1. 1.UK
  2. 2.USA
  3. 3.Czech Republic
  4. 4.Nepal
  5. 5.China

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