Advertisement

Volunteer Tourism and Travel Volunteering

  • Stephen L. Wearing
  • Angela M. Benson
  • Nancy McGehee

Abstract

This chapter explores the nature of volunteer tourism and travel volunteering as part of the larger section of this book on the purposive types of volunteers and volunteering. This new type of volunteering now constitutes a burgeoning segment of the alternative tourism industry that goes far beyond both the traditional notion of volunteering and traditional mass tourism. This chapter explores many key debates that underpin volunteer tourism, in particular the various issues and dimensions evident in various cultural contexts.We also provide an understanding of the reasons why some consumers use their tourism leisure time to volunteer. Our focus will be on international volunteer tourism, excluding domestic tourism volunteering.

Volunteer tourism (or voluntourism) is a relatively recent phenomenon, but despite this, it is one of the major growth areas in contemporary tourism. This demand has been met by a proliferation of organizations from the private, public, and nonprofit sectors offering a range of projects that can be pursued worldwide.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography

  1. Andereck, Kathleen, Nancy G. McGehee, Lee Seungwoo, and David Clemmons. 2012. “Experience Expectations of Prospective Volunteer Tourists.” Journal of Travel Research 51(2):130–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Benson, Angela. 2011. “Volunteer Tourism: Structuring the Research Agenda.” Pp. 240–251 in Volunteer Tourism: Theoretical Frameworks and Practical Applications, edited by A. Benson. Abingdon, Oxon: RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
  3. Benson, Angela, and Nicole Seibert. 2009. “Volunteer Tourism: Motivations of German Volunteers in South Africa.” Annals of Leisure Research 12: 295–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brandon, Kevin. 1993. “Basic Steps Towards Encouraging Local Participation in nature Tourism Projects.” Pp. 134–152 in Ecotourism: A Guide for Planners and Managers, edited by K. Lindberg and D. Hawkins. North Bennington, VT: The Ecotourism SocietyGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown, Sally. 2005. “Travelling with a Purpose: Understanding the Motives and Benefits of Volunteer Vacationers.” Current Issues in Tourism 8:479–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Buendia, Rizal, and Joaquin Gonzalez. 1998. “Is Community Participation Really Essential to Program Effectiveness - Negative Answers from Three Philippine Cases.” International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 18: 148–186Google Scholar
  7. Butcher, James, and Peter Smith. 2010. “Making a Difference: Volunteer Tourism and Development.” Tourism Recreation Research 35: 27–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Callanan, Michelle, and Sarah Thomas. 2005. “Volunteer Tourism: Deconstructing Volunteer Activities Within a Dynamic Environment.” Pp. 183–200 in Niche Tourism: Contempormy Issues, Trends and Cases, edited by M. Novelli. Amsterdam: ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  9. Chang, Dae-oup. 2005. “Neoliberal Restructuring of Capital Relations in East and South-East Asia.” Pp. 251–258 in Neoliberalism: A Critical Reader, edited by A. Saad-Filho and D. Johnston. London: PlutoGoogle Scholar
  10. CIRET. 2012. Aix en Provence, France: Centre International de Recherches et d’Etudes Touristiques. Retrieved from http://www.ciret-tourism.com
  11. Clifton, Julian, and Angela Benson. 2006. “Planning for Sustainable Ecotourism: The Case for Research Ecotourism in Developing Country Destinations.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism 14: 238–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Coghlan, Alexandra. 2008. “Exploring the Role of Expedition Staff in Volunteer Tourism.” International Journal of Tourism Research 10:183–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Elsrud, Torun. 2001. “Risk Creation in Travelling - Backpacker Adventure Narration.” Annals of Tourism Research 28:597–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Godfrey, Jane, and Stephen Wearing. 2012. “Can Volunteer Tourism Be More Than Just the Successful Commodification of Altruism?” Paper presented to Council for Australasian University Tourism and Hospitality Education Conference Melbourne, February, 6–9Google Scholar
  15. Gray, Noella, and Lisa Campbell. 2007. “A Decommodified Experience? Exploring Aesthetic, Economic and Ethical Values for Volunteer Ecotourism in Costa Rica.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism 15: 463–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Higgins-Desboilles, Freya. 2003. “Reconciliation Tourism: Tourism Healing Divided Societies!” Tourism Recreation Research 28:35–44Google Scholar
  17. Hustinx, Lesley. 2001. “Individualisation and New Styles of Youth Volunteering: An Empirical Investigation.” Voluntary Action 3:57–76Google Scholar
  18. Jensen, Lene. 2003. “Coming of Age in a Multicultural World: Globalization and Adolescent Cultural Identity Formation.” Applied Developmental Science 7:189–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lee, Yoon J., and Kyle M. Woosnam. 2010. “Voluntourist Transformation and the Theory of Integrative Cross-Cultural Adaptation.” Annals of Tourism Research, 37(4):1186–1189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lepp, Andrew. 2008. “Discovering Self and Discovering Others Through the Taita Discovery Centre Volunteer Tourism Programme, Kenya.” Pp. 86-100 in Journeys of Discovery in Volunteer Tourism: International Case Study Perspectives, edited by K. Lyons and S. Wearing. Wallingford, UK: CABIGoogle Scholar
  21. Macleod, Donald. 2004. Tourism, Globalisation and Cultural Change: An Island Community Perspective. Clevedon, UK: Channel ViewGoogle Scholar
  22. Matthews, Amie. 2008. Negotiated Selves: Exploring the Impact of Local-Global Interactions on Young Volunteer Travellers. Pp. 101–117 in Journeys of Discovery in Volunteer Tourism: International Case Study Perspectives, edited by K. Lyons and S. Wearing. Wallingford, UK: CABIGoogle Scholar
  23. McGehee, Nancy G. 2002. “Alternative Tourism and Social Movements.” Annals of Tourism Research 29:124–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. McGehee, Nancy G., and Carla Santos. 2005. “Social Change, Discourse, and Volunteer Tourism.” Annals of Tourism Research 32: 760–779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McGehee, Nancy G., and Kathleen Andereck. 2008. “‘Pettin’ the Critters’: Exploring the Complex Relationship Between Volunteers and the Voluntoured in McDowell County, WV, USA and Tijuana, Mexico.” Pp. 12–24 in Journeys of Discovery in Volunteer Tourism: International Case Study Perspectives, edited by K. Lyons and S. Wearing. Wallingford, UK: CABIGoogle Scholar
  26. McGehee, Nancy G., Lee Seungwoo, and David Clemmons. 2009. “The Mystery of The Voluntourist: Utilizing Pearce and Lee’s Travel Career Pattern Model to Examine Motivations, Typologies, and Preferences of Potential Voluntourists.” USA: Greater Western Chapter of the Travel and Tourism Research Association, March 17–20Google Scholar
  27. Mintel Group. 2008. Volunteer Tourism — International — September 2008. London: Mintel GroupGoogle Scholar
  28. Mowforth, Martin, and Ian Munt. 2003. Tourism and Sustainability: Development and New Tourism in the Third World, 2nd edition, New York: RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
  29. Pearce, Douglas G. 1992. “Alternative Tourism: Concepts, Classifications and Questions.” Pp. 15-30 in Tourism Alternatives: Potentials and Problems in the Development of Tourism, edited by V. Smith and W. Eadington. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press and International Academy for the Study of TourismGoogle Scholar
  30. Raymond, Eliza M., and C. Michael Hall. 2008. “The Development of Cross-Cultural (Mis)Understanding Through Volunteer Tourism.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism 16: 530–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rehberg, Walter. 2005. “Altruistic Individualists: Motivations for International Volunteering Among Young Adults in Switzerland.” VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 16:109–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Simpson, Kate. 2004. “‘Doing Development’: The Gap Year, Volunteer-Tourists and a Popular Practice of Development.” Journal of International Development 16:681–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Singh, Tej. 2002. “Altruistic Tourism: Another Shade of Sustainable Tourism: The Case of Kanda Community.” Tourism: An International Interdisciplinary Journal 50:371–381Google Scholar
  34. Smith, David H. 1981. “Altruism, Volunteers, and Volunteerism.” Journal of Voluntary Action Research 10(1):21–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Smith, David H. 2016. “A Survey of Voluntaristics: Research on the Growth of the Global, Interdisciplinary, Socio-Behavioral Science Field and Emergent Inter-Discipline.” Voluntaristics Review: Brill Research Perspectives 1(2):1–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Stoddart, Hilary, and Chris Rogerson. 2004. “Volunteer Tourism: The Case of Habitat for Humanity South Africa.” Geofournal 60: 311Google Scholar
  37. Tourism Research and Marketing (TRAM). 2008. Volunteer Tourism: A Global Analysis. Arnhem, Netherlands: ATLASGoogle Scholar
  38. Wearing, Stephen. 2001a. “Exploring Socio-Cultural Impacts on Local Communities.” Pp. 395–410 in Ecotourism, edited by D. Weaver. Milton, Australia: WileyGoogle Scholar
  39. Wearing, Stephen. 200lb. Volunteer Tourism: Experiences that Make a Difference. New York: CABIGoogle Scholar
  40. Wearing, Stephen. 2002. “Re-Centering the Self in Volunteer Tourism.” Pp. 237–262 in The Tourist as a Metaphor of the Social World, edited by G. Dann. New York: CABIGoogle Scholar
  41. Wearing, Stephen, and John Neil. 2009. Ecotourism: Impacts, Potential and Possibilities, 2nd edition. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-HeinemannGoogle Scholar
  42. Weaver, David. 2007. “Towards Sustainable Mass Tourism: Paradigm Shift or Paradigm Nudge?” Tourism Recreation Research 32:65–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Weaver, David. 2012. “Organic, Incremental and Induced Paths to Sustainable Mass Tourism.” Tourism Management 33:1030–1037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zahra, Anne, and Alison McIntosh. 2007. “Volunteer Tourism: Evidence of Cathartic Tourist Experiences.” Tourism Recreation Research 32: 115–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zahra, Anne, and Nancy G. McGehee. 2013.“Host Perceptions of Volunteer Tourism: A Community Capital Perspective.” Annals of Tourism Research 42: 22–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen L. Wearing
    • 1
  • Angela M. Benson
    • 2
  • Nancy McGehee
    • 3
  1. 1.Australia
  2. 2.UK
  3. 3.USA

Personalised recommendations