Advertisement

Forging Democracy and Locality

Democratization, Mental Health, and Reparations in Chile
  • Lessie Jo Frazier

Abstract

The chant from a 1990 human rights demonstration I participated in highlighted a litany of places in Chile where the remains of the victims of the military dictatorship had been recovered: Mulchén, Lonquen, Laja, Pisagua, and Colina. We marched through the streets of the capital, Santiago, proclaiming, “It wasn’t a war, it was a massacre, all were assassinated,” and finally, “They spilled the blood—now they want to erase their guilt. There will be neither pardon nor forgetting in the earth— Pinochet is guilty. Justice and punishment for all of the guilty,” indexing the struggle over whose history of the dictatorship would achieve credibility and which governing regimes would be considered legitimate. Upon the conclusion of its 1973 to 1990 rule, the Chilean military claimed to have won a civil war fought against the forces of global communism, while the human rights movement referred to a long, national history of the repression of the Chilean people. The exhumed bodies became artifacts of this struggle over history as forensic anthropologists traced the stories of torture and execution encoded on the corpses. Each additional mass gravesite mapped out the topography of state terror.

Keywords

Mass Grave Regime Transition State Violence Military Regime Truth Commission 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agger, Inger and Sören Buus Jensen. 1996. Trauma y cura en situaciones de terrorismo de estado. Santiago: CESOC.Google Scholar
  2. Brunner, José Joaquín, Alicia Barrios, and Carlos Catalán. 1989. Chile: Tranformaciones culturales y modernidad. Santiago: FLACSO.Google Scholar
  3. Comisión Nacional de Verdad y Reconciliatión. 1991. Informe Rettig: Informe de la Comision Nacional de Verdad y Reconciliación, Vol 1 and 2. Santiago: Gobierno.Google Scholar
  4. Cosgrove, David. 1985. “Prospect, Perspective and the Evolution of the Landscape Idea.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 10(1): 45–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cousins, Andrew. 2000. “Ideology and Biomedicine in the Palestine West Bank.” Ph.D. diss. Atlanta: Emory University.Google Scholar
  6. Domínguez V. Rosario et al. 1994. Saludy derechos humanos: Una experiencia desde el sistema público Chileno, 1991–1993. Santiago: PRAIS (Programa de Reparación y Atención Integral de Salud y Derechos Humanos, Ministerio de Salud).Google Scholar
  7. Frazier, Lessie Jo. 1998. “Memory and State Violence in Chile: A Historical Ethnography of Tarapacá, Chile, 1890–1995.” Ph.D. diss. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  8. Frazier, Lessie Jo. 1999. “’subverted Memories:’ Countermourning as Political Action in Chile.” In Acts of Memory, edited by Mieke Bal, Leo Spitzer, and Jonathan Crewe. Hanover: University Press of New England, 105–119.Google Scholar
  9. Frazier, Lessie Jo. Forthcoming. “Medicalizing State Violence, Domesticating Human Rights in Market-States.” In Violence and the Body, edited by Arturo Aldama. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press.Google Scholar
  10. Frazier, Lessie Jo and Joseph Scarpaci. 1998. “Landscapes of State Violence and the Struggle to Reclaim Community: Mental Health, and Human Rights in Iquique, Chile.” In Putting Health into Place: Making Connections in Geographical Research, edited by Robin A. Kearns and Wilbert M. Gesler. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 53–74.Google Scholar
  11. Garreton, Manuel Antonio. 1999. “Review of Patterns of Democratic Transition and Consolidation.” Journal of Latin American Studies 31(3): 768–769.Google Scholar
  12. Hollander, Nancy Caro. 1997. Love in a Time of Hate: Liberation Psychology in Latin America. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Jelin, Elizabeth. 1998. “The minefields of memory.” NACLA: Report on the Americas 32(2): 23–29.Google Scholar
  14. Jelin, Elizabeth. 1999. “Review of Love in a Time of Hate.” Journal of Latin American Studies 31(3): 786–788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kasakoff, Alice. 1999. “Is There a Place for Anthropology in Social Science History?” Social Science History 23(4): 535–560.Google Scholar
  16. Lira, Elizabeth and María Isabel Castillo, eds. 1991. Psicología de la amenaza política y del miedo. Santiago: ILAS.Google Scholar
  17. Massey, Doreen. 1994. Space, Place and Gender. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  18. McDowell, Linda. 1994. “The Transformation of Cultural Geography.” In Human Geography: Society, Space and Social Science, edited by D. Gregory, R. Martin and G. Smith. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 146–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. McDowell, Linda. 1999. Gender, Identity, & Place. Minneapolis: Minnesota.Google Scholar
  20. Paley, Julia. 2000. Marketing Democracy. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  21. Rose, Gillian. 1993. Feminism and Geography: The Limits of Geographical Knowledge. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  22. Scarpaci, Joseph L. and Lessie Jo Frazier. 1993. “State Terror: Ideology, Protest, and the Gendering of Landscapes.” Progress in Human Geography 17: 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Schild, Verónica. 2000. “Neo-Liberalism’s New Gendered Market Citizens: The ‘Civilizing’ Dimension of Social Programmes in Chile.” Citizenship Studies 4(3): 275–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Smith, Gavin. 1999. Confronting the Present: Towards a Politically Engaged Anthropology. Oxford: Berg.Google Scholar
  25. Taylor, Lucy. 1998. Citizenship, Participation and Democracy. Basingstoke: Macmillan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Vidal, Hernán. 2000. Chile: Poética de la tortura política. Santiago: Biblioteca Setenta&3/Mosquito Comunicaciones.Google Scholar
  27. Women and Geography Study Group. 1997. Feminist Geographies: Explorations in Diversity and Difference. Harlow: Longman.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Rosario Montoya, Lessie Jo Frazier, and Janise Hurtig 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lessie Jo Frazier

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations