In the last decade of the twentieth century the world has witnessed lethal conflict that resulted in genocidal behavior,1 most notably in Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia. Military, social, and political scientists contend that the conditions that foster these behavioral phenomena will persist if not increase in the decades to come. With the intensity of lethal conflict come massacres of noncombatants, characteristics of behavior chronicled in history and visible in prehistoric contexts. Mass graves are often a result of contemporary massacres and known to be scattered throughout both the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda.


Mass Grave Collective Memory Place Attachment International Criminal Tribunal Military Leader 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References Cited

  1. African Rights. 1995. Rwand. —Death, Despair, and Defiance. London: African Rights.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, R. D. 1989. “Evolution of the Human Psyche.” In The Human Revolution: Behavioral and Biological Perspectives on the Origins of Modern Human., ed. P. Mellars and C. Stringer, 455–513. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Altman, I. and S. M. Low (eds.). 1992. Place Attachment. New York: Plenum PressGoogle Scholar
  4. Azaryahu, M. and A. Kellerman. 1999. Symbolic Places of National History and Revival: A Study in Zionist Mythical Geography. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographer. 24: 109–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bates, R. H. 1983. “Modernization, Ethnic Competition, and the Rationality of Politics in Contemporary Africa.” In State versus Ethnic Claims: African Policy Dilemma., ed. D. Rothchild and V. A. Olorunsola, 152–171.Google Scholar
  6. Benford, R. D. 1996. Whose War Memories Shall Be Preserved? Peace Revie. 8: 189–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boban, L. 1990. Jasenovac and the Manipulation of History. East European Politics and Societies A. 580–592.Google Scholar
  8. —. 1991. Still More Balance on Jasenovac and the Manipulation of History. East European Politics and Societie. 6:213–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bodnar, J. 1994. “Public memory in an American City: Commemoration in Cleveland.” In Commemoratio. —the Politics of National Identity., ed. J. R. Gillis, 74–89. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bonino, E. 1998. Address to the Congressional Human Rights Caucus, Washington DC, May 12, 1998.Google Scholar
  11. Burnstein, E., M. Abboushi, and S. Kitayama. 1993. “How the Mind Preserves the Image of the Enemy: The Mnemonics of Soviet-American Relations.” In Behavior, Culture, and Conflict in World Politic., ed. W Zimmerman and H. K. Jacobson, 197–229. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  12. Burton, J. W. 1997. Violence Explaine. —The Sources of Conflict, Violence and Crime and their Prevention. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Chalk, E and K. Jonassohn. 1990. The History and Sociology of Genocide: Analyses and Case Studies. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Connerton, P. 1989. How Societies Remember. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Crnobrnja, M. 1994. The Yugoslav Drama. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Crossette, B. 1998. “U.N. stymied by Congo Leader—Halts Inquiry on Rwanda Killings.” The New York Time., April 10, 1998: Sec. A, 1.Google Scholar
  17. Daly, M. and M. Wilson. 1994. “Evolutionary Psychology of Male Violence.” In Male Violence., ed. J. Archer, 253–288. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. Dedijer, V. 1992. The Yugoslav Auschwitz and the Vatican: The Croatian Massacre of the Serbs during World War II. Translated by H. L. Kendall. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books.Google Scholar
  19. Denich, B. 1994. Dismembering Yugoslavia: Nationalist Ideologies and the Symbolic Revival of Genocide. American Ethnologis. 21: 367–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Des Forges, A. 1995. The Ideology of Genocide. Issue: A Journal of Opinio. 23: 44–47.Google Scholar
  21. Des Forges, A.—. 1999. Leave None to Tell the Stor. —Genocide in Rwanda. New York: Human Rights Watch.Google Scholar
  22. Farmer, S. 1999. Martyred Villag. —Commemorating the 1944 Massacre at Oradour-sur-Glane. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  23. Fein, H. 1990. Genocide: A Sociological Perspective. Current Sociolog. 38: 1–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. French, H. W. 1998. “Cold Trail: A Special Report—Congo Not Alone in Ending Massacre Inquiry.” The New York Time., May 7, 1998: Sec A, 1.Google Scholar
  25. Gilliland, M.K. 1995. “Nationalism and Ethnogenesis in the Former Yugoslavia.” In Ethnic Identity: Creation, Conflict, and Accommodation., ed. L. Romanuccci-Ross and G. A. DeVos, 197–221. Walnut Creek, California: AltaMira Press.Google Scholar
  26. Greenland, J. 1976. “Ethnic Discrimination in Rwanda and Burundi.” In Case Studies on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms: A World Survey., ed. W. A. Veenhoven, 95–134. The Hague: Mautinus Nijhoff.Google Scholar
  27. Gross, J. T 2001. Neighbors: The Destruction of the Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gurr, T.R. 1993. Minorities at Risk: A Global View of Ethnopolitical Conflicts. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.Google Scholar
  29. Gutman, I. (ed.) 1990. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. Vol. 2. New York: Macmillan Pub. Co.Google Scholar
  30. Gutman, R. 1998. Details of Death Camp in Document. Newsday., May 2: A07.Google Scholar
  31. Harff, B. 1992. “Recognizing Genocides and Politicides.” In Genocide Watch., ed. H. Fein, 27–41. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Hayden, R. M. 1992. Balancing Discussion of Jasenovac and the Manipulation of History. East European Politics and Societie. 6: 207–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hayden, R. M.—. 1994. “Recounting the Dead: The Rediscovery and Reinterpretation of Wartime Massacres in Late- and Post-Communist Yugoslavia.” In Memory and Opposition under State Socialism., ed. R. S. Watson, 167–184. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research.Google Scholar
  34. R. S. Watson—. 1996. Schindler’s Fate: Genocide, Ethnic Cleansing and Population Transfers. Slavic Review. 727–748.Google Scholar
  35. Hedges, C. 1998. Sakic—Major Jasenovac Trial Looks Likely. The New York Time., 2 May.Google Scholar
  36. Hinton, A. L. 1997. Agents of Death: Explaining the Cambodian Genocide in Terms of Psychosocial Dissonance. American Anthropologis. 98: 818–831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hirsch, H. 1985. Why People Kill: Conditions for Participation in Mass Murder. International Journal of Group Tension. 15: 41–57.Google Scholar
  38. Hirsch, H.—. 1995. Genocide and the Politics of Memory. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  39. Holley, D. 2001. Serbs Face their Past, Dose of Truth at a Time. The Los Angeles Time., April 17.Google Scholar
  40. Honig, J. W and N. Both. 1996. Srebrenic. —Record of a War Crime. New York: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  41. Ingrao, C. 1998. Available from listserv@ TWATCH-L. April 3.Google Scholar
  42. IRINWIRE. 1997. Integrated Regional Information Network for the Great lakes. United Nations, Department of Humanitarian Affairs.Google Scholar
  43. Irwin-Zarecka, I. 1994. Frames of Remembrance: the Dynamics of Collective Memory. New Brunswick: Transaction Pub.Google Scholar
  44. Jackson, W. D. 1989. The Construction of Conflicts. Conflic. 9: 89–100.Google Scholar
  45. Koonz, C. 1994. “Between Memory and Oblivion: Concentration Camps in German Memory.” In Commemoration. —the Politics of National Identity., ed. J. R. Gillis, 258–280. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Kressel, N. J. 1996. Mass Hat. —the Global Rise of Genocide and Terror. New York, NY: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  47. Low, B. S. 1993. “An Evolutionary Perspective on War.” In Behavior, Culture, and Conflict in World Politic., ed. W. Zimmerman and H. K. Jacobson, 13–55. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  48. Mamdani, M. 1996. Citizen and Subjec. —Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Markusen, E. and D. Kopf. 1995. The Holocaust and Strategic Bombin. —Genocide and Total War in the Twentieth Century. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  50. Mayo, J. M. 1988. War Memorials and Political Memory. Geographical Revie. 78: 62–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. McNeil, D. C, Jr. 1997. Reports Point to Mass Killings of Refugees in Congo. The New York Time., May 28.Google Scholar
  52. Melchior, M. B. 2001. The Art of Public Mourning: The Wall and the Continuing American Failure to Come to Terms with the Loss of the Vietnam Wall. Humanity and Societ. 25: 263–288.Google Scholar
  53. Metcalfe, J. C. 1999. Genocide Suspect Arrested in Tanzania. INTERNEWS. International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. November 9.Google Scholar
  54. Milligan, M. J. 1998. Interactional Past and Potential: the Social Construction of Place Attachment. Symbolic Interactio. 21: 1–33.Google Scholar
  55. Mirkovic, D. 2000. The Historical Link between the Ustasha Genocide and the Croato-Serb Civil War: 1991–199 5. Journal of Genocide Research 2. 363–373.Google Scholar
  56. Nagengast, C. 1994. Violence, Terror, and the Crisis of the State. Annual Review of Anthropolog. 23: 109–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Newbury, C. 1998. Ethnicity and the Politics of History in Rwanda. Africa Toda. 45: 7–24.Google Scholar
  58. Olick, J. K. and J. Robbins. 1998. Social Memory Studies: From “Collective Memory” to the Historical Sociology of Mnemonic Practices. Annual Review of Sociolog. 24: 105–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pawson, E. J. 1991. Monuments, Memorials and Cemeteries: Icons in the Landscape. New Zealand Journal of Geograph. 92: 26–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Peterson, H. 1999. East Timor Commemorates 1991 Massacre. Associated Press., November 12.Google Scholar
  61. Pieterse, J. N. 1997. Sociology of Humanitarian Intervention: Bosnia, Rwanda and Somalia Compared. International Political Science Revie. 18: 71–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pomfret, J. 1997. Massacres were a Weapon in Congo’s Civil War—Evidence Mounts of Atrocities by Kabila’s Forces. The Washington Post., June 11: A01.Google Scholar
  63. Pottier, J. 2002. Re-Imagining Rwand. — Conflict, Survival and Disinformation in the Late Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Randal, J. C. 1997. In Gorazade, Thirst Rises for Revenge. The Washington Post., May 8: A20.Google Scholar
  65. Ratner, S. R. and J. S. Abrams. 1997. Accountability for Human Rights Atrocities in International La. —Beyond the Nuremberg Legacy. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  66. Reuber, P. 2000. Conflict Studies and Critical Geopolitics—Theoretical Concepts and Recent Research in Political Geography. Geojourna. 50: 37–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rohde, D. 2001. In Bosnia, Massacre Victims Lie While the Living Bicker. New York Times Magazines., March 11.Google Scholar
  68. ROMNEWS. 1998. Croatia Commemorates Victims of World War II Fascist Camp. Roma National Congress of Europe. May 2.Google Scholar
  69. Rosenberg, T. 2001. Poland Faces an Ugly Truth, and Doesnt Blink. The New York Time., April 8.Google Scholar
  70. Russell, A. 1997. Kabila Faces UN Inquiry into Hutu Massacre. International News Electronic Telegraph., June 21.Google Scholar
  71. Santoro, L. 1997. Rwanda Massacre Sites Now Grim Memorials. The Christian Science Monitor., August 8.Google Scholar
  72. Schwartz, B. and T Bayma. 1999. Commemoration and the Politics of Recognition: The Korean War Veterans Memorial. American Behavioral Scientis. 42: 946–967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sibley, D. 1995. Geographies of Exclusio. —Society and Difference in the West. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sibomana, Andre. 1999. Hope for Rwand. —Conversations with Laure Guilbert and Herve Deguine. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  75. Simon, T. W 1996. Defining Genocide. Wisconsin International Law Journa. 15: 243–256.Google Scholar
  76. Smith, A. D. 1984. National Identity and Myths of Ethnic Descent. Research in Social Movements, Conflict and Change. 7. 95–130.Google Scholar
  77. Smith, A. D.—. 1992. Chosen Peoples: Why Ethnic Groups Survive. Ethnic and Racia. Studie. 15: 436–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Smith, A. D.—. 1996. Culture, Community and Territory: The Politics of Ethnicity and Nationalism. International Affair. 72: 445–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Stephen, C. 1997. Education in Bosnia. Agence France Press., November 5.Google Scholar
  80. Stockman, F. 1999. Special Internews Report from Rwanda: Coping with Genocide Five Years Later. Internews Net worth., April 7.Google Scholar
  81. Stojanovic, D. 1997. Bosnia-Beleagured Serbs. Associated Press., July 31.Google Scholar
  82. Stokols, D. and S.A. Shumaker. 1981. “People in Places: A Transactional View of Settings.” In Cognition, Social Behavior, and the Environment., ed. J. H. Harvey, 441–488. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Ass.Google Scholar
  83. Thomas, D. 1997. “Constructing National and Cultural Identities in Sub-Saharan Francophone Africa.” In Not on Any Ma .— Essays on Postcoloniality and Cultural Nationalism., ed. S. Murray, 115–134. Exeter: University of Exeter Press.Google Scholar
  84. United Nations. 1997. Guidelines for the Conduct of United Nations Inquiries into Allegations of Massacres. New York: United Nations, Office of Legal Affairs.Google Scholar
  85. Vukic, S. 1998. World War II Crimes Suspect Arrives Home for Trial. Associated Press., June 18.Google Scholar
  86. Willhoite, F. H. 1977. Evolution and Collective Intolerance. Journal of Politic. 39: 667–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Winfield, N. 1998. U.N. Calls for Human Rights Tribunal. The Associated Press., June 30.Google Scholar
  88. Winter, J. 1995. Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  89. Zadunaisky, D. 1998. Argentina Arrests Croatian Suspect. The Associated Press., May 1.Google Scholar
  90. Zelizer, B. 1995. Reading the Past Against the Grain: The Shape of Memory Studies. Critical Studies in Mass Communicatio. 12: 214–239.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Jack Santino 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ralph Hartley

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations