It was a revolt within the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP), made successful by President Marcos’s own cousin General Fidel V. Ramos, that occasioned the 1986 “People Power” revolution, exemplary even in a period when many other peoples were throwing off the yoke of tyranny. But the four American helicopters that descended on Malacañang Palace at nine in the evening of 25 February 1986 symbolized the American role in the crisis; they were so much larger than what the Philippine Armed Forces could muster. They took Ferdinand Edralin and Imelda Romualdez Marcos, their family, and their close friend (and most prominent of the business cronies) Eduardo “Danding” Cojuangco from the palace to Clark Air Force Base, hence to an ignominious American exile. There was no way out, other than this, from the great crisis of 1986, itself the product of Marcos’s own engineering. The old Philippine republic was overthrown.1
KeywordsPresidential Election Replacement Cost Quezon City Manageable Proportion Eastern Economic Review
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- 1.There is a substantial literature on the events leading up to and including the Epifanio de los Santos (EDSA) coup. See in particular Raymond Bonner, Waltzing with a Dictator (New York: Vintage Books, 1988), and for a local military perspective, seeGoogle Scholar
- Col. Hector M. Terrazona, After Edsa, Vol. I (Manila: Hector M. Terrazona, 1989).Google Scholar
- 4.Isabelo T. Crisostomo, Cory: Profile of a Presidency (Quezon City, Manila: J. Kriz Publishing Enterprises, 1986), p. 14.Google Scholar
- 9.For example, her May Day speech in 1986, pledging an “economic revolution that will lift us from poverty, underdevelopment, and economic injustice.” Cited in Lucy Komisar, Corazon Aquino: The Story of a Revolution (New York: George Braziller, 1988), p. 178.Google Scholar
- 11.Jose Syjuco, quoted in Rosalinda Piñeda-Ofreneo, The Manipulated Press: A History of Philippine Journalism since 1945 (Manila: 1984), p. 71, cited in “The Philippine Press System, 1811–1989,” by Doreen G. Fernandez, Philippine Studies 37 (1989).Google Scholar