America, preeminent since 1945, and hegemonic since 1989, manages its security order with alliances. But Chinese and Indian revival, Japanese assertiveness, and Russian revitalization have injected systemic fluidity. Not all “rising” powers challenge the order and America is strengthening ties with most. But dynamic processes carry uncertainty and Washington’s strategy has been to shore up the known against the unknown. Parallel to China’s rise has begun a relative decline of U.S. preponderance, given its GWOT-Iraq-Afghan commitments. This has sharpened relations with Tokyo, Delhi, Canberra, Seoul, Singapore, even Jakarta, and Hanoi, as opposed to Beijing. Security ties are being boosted to hedge against feared Chinese hostility. U.S.-Japan-China linkages are the sharp edge of these endeavors, given the sensitivity of bilateral relations within that triangle.4 U.S.-China-India, U.S.-Japan-India, and U.S.-Japan-Australia are other formulations. Secondary actors, pursuing own interests, are leveraging their assets to expand their autonomous space. A China-India-Russia triangle exemplifies Asia’s unpredictable security dynamic in the face of which the U.S.-Japan alliance has been the bedrock of American strategy.


Foreign Minister Strategic Partnership Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Defense Minister Responsible Stakeholder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 2.
    A.B. Vajpayee, Address at Asia Society, New York, September 7, 2000.Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    Vladimir Putin, International Security: Russian Perspective, Munich, February 10, 2007.Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    Quansheng Zhao, “China and Major Power Relations in East Asia,” Journal of Contemporary China, Vol. 10, no. 29, 2001, p. 666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Paul Frandano, The Japan-China-US Triangle, Georgetown University, November 2006.Google Scholar
  5. 10.
    Lu Zhongwei, “What Are the Japan-US New Defense Cooperation Guidelines Up To?” China News and Report, June 1, 1999.Google Scholar
  6. 12.
    Neil Silver, The US, Japan and China, New York, CFR, 2000, pp. 2–4.Google Scholar
  7. 31.
    Rust Deming, Japan’s Constitution and Defense Policy, Washington, NDU, November 2004, p. 6.Google Scholar
  8. 39.
    Perry, Remarks to the Foreign Policy Association, New York, January 31, 1995.Google Scholar
  9. 40.
    I.K. Gujral, Remarks at the CFR, September 23, 1997.Google Scholar
  10. 47.
    Strobe Talbott, Briefing on India and Pakistan, State Department, June 18, 1998.Google Scholar
  11. 50.
    James Rubin, India-US Talks, State Department, February 1, 1999.Google Scholar
  12. 56.
    K.R. Narayanan, Remarks in an exchange of Toasts, Delhi, March 21, 2000; Remarks by Prime Minister Vajpayee and President Clinton during a Joint Press statement, March 21, 2000; India-US Relations, March 21, 2000; Remarks by President Clinton to the Joint Session of Indian Parliament, Delhi, March 22, 2000; Vajpayee, Statement after the Address by the US President, March 22, 2000.Google Scholar
  13. 59.
    Victor Gobarev, “India as a World Power,” Policy Analysis, Washington, Cato Institute, September 11, 2000; Charles Wolf, 2000, pp. 43–50; NIC, 2000, pp. 13, 17, 64, 66; Tellis, 2001, Ch. 6.Google Scholar
  14. 60.
    Core Group, India-US Relations, Delhi, IPCS, 2003, p. 19.Google Scholar
  15. 62.
    Christina Rocca, Remarks to the Press, Delhi, April 10, 2002Google Scholar
  16. Douglas Feith, Transforming the US-Indian Defense and Security Relationship, May 13, 2002; US -India DPG Meeting, DoD, May 23, 2002; K. Alan Kronstadt, India-US Relations, CRS, May 2003, pp. 9–10.Google Scholar
  17. 70.
    Rahul Bedi, “Strategic Partners in Defense,” SPAN, Delhi, U.S. Embassy, March–April 2005; “Shared Strategic Future,” US -India: People, Progress, Partnership, ibid., September 2004.Google Scholar
  18. 71.
    Manmohan Singh, Address to the Nation, Delhi, June 24, 2004.Google Scholar
  19. 74.
    David Mulford, Remarks Onboard the USS Cowpens, Goa, October 10, 2004.Google Scholar
  20. 75.
    Adam Ward, India’s Conventional Build-Up, London, IISS, December 2004.Google Scholar
  21. 76.
    Mulford, Customs Cooperation Is New Facet of US -India Cooperation, Delhi, US Embassy, December 17, 2004Google Scholar
  22. Manmohan Singh, Statement on Foreign Policy -Related Issues, December 21, 2004.Google Scholar
  23. 86.
    M.K. Narayanan, IISS Address, Geneva, September 18, 2005.Google Scholar
  24. 87.
    Natwar Singh, Statement at the 60th Session of the UNGA, September 18, 2005.Google Scholar
  25. 90.
    Alexey Pushkov, “Missed Connections,” The National Interest, May/June 2007, pp. 52–7.Google Scholar
  26. 95.
    Vladimir Putin, “Remarks to Turkish Journalists,” Sochi, Itar TASS, September 1, 2004.Google Scholar
  27. 97.
    Lt. Gen. Michael Maples, Current and Projected National Security Threats to the US, DIA, February 28, 2006.Google Scholar
  28. 102.
    Vladimir Mukhin, “Gates Refused Cooperation,” Nezavisimaya Gazeta, April 25, 2007Google Scholar
  29. Darya Yuryeva, “Cautious Optimist,” Rossiyskaya Gazeta, April 24, 2007Google Scholar
  30. Robert Gates, Press Availability, Moscow, April 23, 2007.Google Scholar
  31. 111.
    Ni Lexiong, “Sea Power and China’s Development,” PLA Daily, April 17, 2005.Google Scholar
  32. 114.
    Rumsfeld, Address at the Shangri-La Dialogue, Singapore, June 4, 2005.Google Scholar
  33. 116.
    Zheng Bijian, “Four Strategic Opportunities for China-US Relations,” People’s Daily, July 13, 2005Google Scholar
  34. Ding Xin, National Defense through Peace vs. Rise Through Military Means, USCC, July 19, 2005Google Scholar
  35. Zhou Wenzhou, In Commemoration of the 60th Anniversary of the Victory of the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression, Washington, Chinese Embassy, July 21, 2005.Google Scholar
  36. 119.
    Harold Brown, Managing Change, Santa Monica, RAND, June 28, 2005.Google Scholar
  37. 120.
    Robert Zoellick, Whither China: From Membership to Responsibility? State Department, September 21, 2005.Google Scholar
  38. 125.
    John Hillen, Address to Global Trade Controls Conference, State Department, November 3, 2005.Google Scholar
  39. 132.
    Wen Jiabao, Address of Welcome to John Howard, Beijing, April 3, 2006Google Scholar
  40. Zheng Bijian, “China’s Peaceful Development and Chinese Civilized Revival,” People’s Daily, April 10, 2006.Google Scholar
  41. 136.
    Henry Hyde, A Resurgent China: Responsible Stakeholder or Robust Rival? House Statement, May 10, 2006Google Scholar

Copyright information

© S. Mahmud Ali 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Mahmud Ali

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations