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Abstract

America, preeminent since 1945, and hegemonic since 1989, manages its security order with alliances. But Chinese and Indian revival, Japanese assertiveness, and Russian revitalization have injected systemic fluidity. Not all “rising” powers challenge the order and America is strengthening ties with most. But dynamic processes carry uncertainty and Washington’s strategy has been to shore up the known against the unknown. Parallel to China’s rise has begun a relative decline of U.S. preponderance, given its GWOT-Iraq-Afghan commitments. This has sharpened relations with Tokyo, Delhi, Canberra, Seoul, Singapore, even Jakarta, and Hanoi, as opposed to Beijing. Security ties are being boosted to hedge against feared Chinese hostility. U.S.-Japan-China linkages are the sharp edge of these endeavors, given the sensitivity of bilateral relations within that triangle.4 U.S.-China-India, U.S.-Japan-India, and U.S.-Japan-Australia are other formulations. Secondary actors, pursuing own interests, are leveraging their assets to expand their autonomous space. A China-India-Russia triangle exemplifies Asia’s unpredictable security dynamic in the face of which the U.S.-Japan alliance has been the bedrock of American strategy.

Keywords

Foreign Minister Strategic Partnership Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Defense Minister Responsible Stakeholder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

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© S. Mahmud Ali 2008

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  • S. Mahmud Ali

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