Transformation of Jinghong, Xishuangbanna, PRC

  • Grant Evans


The opening up of the land borders between China and the mainland Southeast Asian states has not only involved economic processes, but also social and cultural ones, such as shifts in ethnic composition along the border. In some cases it has seen the re-establishment of a previous status quo, such as the return of ethnic Chinese (Hoa) traders to the northern borders of Vietnam. During the conflict with China along the border in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Hoa were compelled to move away from the border for “security” reasons, and many fled Vietnam as refugees. Today, they have moved back in strength, and border towns like Mong Cai or Lang Son once again have large and thriving Hoa populations (see Chapter 12).


Rubber Plantation Paddy Land Eastern Economic Review Chinese Yamen Chinese Trader 
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© Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore 2000

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  • Grant Evans

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