The Southern Chinese Borders in History

  • Geoff Wade

Abstract

During a recent talk about the ancient Vietnamese Dong-son bronze drums, a member of the audience was heard to opine that as “Vietnam belonged to China during the Han dynasty”, such drums are Chinese drums.1 A statement such as this brings into focus a number of important and perhaps intractable questions: What constitutes China? What constitutes Chinese culture? To what degree has the Chinese state, throughout the millenia, exercised control over areas which were, or are now, claimed as parts of China? How “Chinese” are these areas in cultural terms? Why are cultural areas that were previously considered to be non-Chinese included today in the Chinese state? In any exploration of questions such as these we need to determine or create boundaries or borders. The way people create and perceive borders, however, differs markedly with the culture and polities from whence they come. We can see an excellent example of this by looking at the maps of Ming China contained within the Cambridge History of China.2 While the map in the original edition portrays Ming China as extending westward only to Yunnan, Sichuan, and Gansu, the map in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) translation shows the Ming state extending west to the Pamir Mountains in central Asia and northwards far beyond Lake Baikal.

Keywords

Assimilation Turkey Peri Nomad Shoe 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography of Western Works Cited

  1. Dabringhaus, Sabine and Roderich Ptak, eds. China and Her Neighbours: Borders, Visions of the Other, Foreign Policy 10th to 19th Century. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1997.Google Scholar
  2. Deal, David Michael. “National Minority Policy in Southwest China, 1911–1965”. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, 1971.Google Scholar
  3. Dikötter, Frank. The Discourse of Race in Modern China. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1992.Google Scholar
  4. Dreyer, June Teufel. China’s Forty Millions. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  5. Duara, Prasenjit. Rescuing History from the Nation: Questioning Narratives of Modern China. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. English-Lueck, Jan. “A Journey to the West: Historic and Modern Chinese Frontiers and Han History”. Paper presented at the Eleventh Oklohoma Symposium on Comparative Frontiers Studies, University of Oklahoma, 1991.Google Scholar
  7. Fairbank, J.K. The Chinese World Order: Traditional China’s Foreign Relations. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fitzgerald, C.P. The Southern Expansion of the Chinese People: “Southern Fields and Southern Ocean”. London: Barrie and Jenkins, 1972.Google Scholar
  9. Foucault, Michel. L’archeologie du Savoir. Paris: Gallimard, 1969.Google Scholar
  10. Gladney, Dru. “Relational Alterity: Constructing Dungan (Hui), Uygur, and Kazakh Identities across China, Central Asia, and Turkey”. History and Anthropology 9, no. 4 (1996): 445–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hay, John, ed. Boundaries in China. London: Reaktion Books, 1994.Google Scholar
  12. Herman, John E. “Empire in the Southwest: Early Qing Reforms to the Native Chieftain System”. Journal of Asian Studies 56, no. 1 (1997): 47–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hershatter, Gail et al., eds. Remapping China: Fissures in Historical Terrain. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996.Google Scholar
  14. Holmgren, Jennifer. Chinese Colonisation of Northern Vietnam. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  15. Lattimore, Owen. Inner Asian Frontiers of China. New York: American Geographical Society, 1951.Google Scholar
  16. Legge, James, trans. The Chinese Classics. Reprint. Taipei: SMC Publishing, 1994.Google Scholar
  17. Liew Foon Ming. “The Luchuan-Pingmian Campaigns (1436–1449) in the Light of Official Chinese Historiography”. Oriens Extremus 39, no. 2 (1996): 162–203.Google Scholar
  18. Shiba, Yoshinobu. Commerce and Society in Sung China, translated by Mark Elvin. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Centre for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 1970.Google Scholar
  19. Taylor, Keith Weiler. The Birth of Vietnam. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.Google Scholar
  20. Twitchett, Denis and John K. Fairbank, eds. The Cambridge History of China, vol. 7, part 1, “The Ming Dynasty (1368–1644), edited by Denis Twitchett and Frederick W. Mote. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  21. Von Glahn, Richard L. “The Country of Streams and Grottoes: Geography, Settlements, and the Civilizing of China’s Southwestern Frontier”. Ph.D. thesis, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University, 1983.Google Scholar
  22. Wang Gungwu. “The Chinese Urge to Civilize: Reflections on Change”. Journal of Asian History 18 (1984): 1–34.Google Scholar
  23. Wiens, Herold J. Han Chinese Expansion in South China. Hamden, Connecticut: Shoe String Press, 1967. [Originally published as China’s March toward the Tropics]Google Scholar
  24. Zou Rong. The Revolutionary Army, translated by John Lust. The Hague: Mouton, 1968.Google Scholar

Chinese Bibliography

  1. Ban Gu. Hanshu, juan 94. Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju, 1975.Google Scholar
  2. Fan Chengda (annotated by Hu Qiwang and Qin Guangguang). Guihai Yuhengzhi Jiyi Jiaozhu. Chengdu: Sichuan Minzu Chubanshe, 1986.Google Scholar
  3. Gong Yin. Zhongguo Tusi Zhidu. Kunming: Yunnan Minzu Chubanshe, 1992.Google Scholar
  4. Jiang Yingliang. Zhongguo Minzu Shi. Beijing: Minzu Chubanshe, 1991.Google Scholar
  5. Liao Xiaojian. “Lun 1406 nian Mingchao yu Annan Zhanzheng de Yuanyin”. Yindu Zhina, no. 1 (1988), pp. 11–15.Google Scholar
  6. Liu Hongxuan. Zhongguo Jiangyu Shi. Wuhan: Wuhan Chubanshe, 1995.Google Scholar
  7. Lü Yiran, ed. Zhongguo Bianjiang Shidi Lunji. Harbin: Heilongjiang Jiaoyu Chubanshe, 1991.Google Scholar
  8. Ma Ruheng and Ma Dazheng, eds. Qingdai Bianjiang Kaifa Yanjiu. Beijing: Xinhua Shudian Chubanshe, 1990.Google Scholar
  9. Ma Yao. Yunnan Jianshi. Kunming: Yunnan Renmin Chubanshe, 1991.Google Scholar
  10. Mou Fuli, Cui Ruide, eds. Jianqiao Zhongguo Mingdai Shi. Beijing: Zhongguo Shehui Kexue Chubanshe, 1992.Google Scholar
  11. Sima Qian. Shiji. Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju, 1963.Google Scholar
  12. Tan Qixiang, ed. Zhongguo Lishi Dituji. Beijing: Ditu Chubanshe, 1982–87.Google Scholar
  13. Wang Guowei. Shuijing Zhujiao. Shanghai: Shanghai Renmin Chubanshe, 1984.Google Scholar
  14. Weng Dujian. Zhongguo Minzu Guanxi Shi Gangyao. Beijing: Zhongguo Shehui Kexue Chubanshe, 1990.Google Scholar
  15. Wu Yongzhang. Zhongguo Tusi Zhidu Yuanyuanyu Fazhan Shi. Chengdu: Sichuan Minzu Chubanshe, 1988.Google Scholar
  16. Yang Jialuo, ed. Lidai Bianzu Zhuanji Huibian. Taipei: Dingwen Shuju, 1975.Google Scholar
  17. Zou Qiyu et al. Zhongguo Renkou: Yunnan Fence. Beijing: Zhongguo Caizheng Jingji Chubanshe, 1989.Google Scholar

參考書目(按漢語拼音序)

  1. 范成大原著(胡起望,覃光廣校注),《桂海虞衡志辑侏校注》,成都, 1986 °Google Scholar
  2. 范宏桂,“我國壯族与越南你族儂族的古今關係”,見范宏貴,顧有識 (編),《壯族論稿》,南寧,1989。Google Scholar
  3. 樊绰,《蠻書》。Google Scholar
  4. 傅恆等(編),《皇清職貢圖》,遼瀋書社,瀋陽,1991。Google Scholar
  5. 龔蔭,《中國土司制度》,雲南民族出版社,1992。Google Scholar
  6. 廣西壯族自治區少數民族古籍整理出版規划領導小組(主編),《古壯字 字典》,廣西民族出版社,1989。Google Scholar
  7. 江應樑,《中國民族史》(上,中,下),北京,1991。Google Scholar
  8. 藍勇,《南方絲綢之路》,重慶,1992。Google Scholar
  9. 李龍華,“明代的開中法”,《香港中文大學中國文化研究所學報》第4卷 第2期(1971)。Google Scholar
  10. 廖小健,“論1406年明朝與安南戰爭的原因”,《印度支那》1988年第1 期。Google Scholar
  11. 呂一燃(主編),《中國邊疆史地論集》,黑龍江敎育出版社,哈爾賓, 1991。Google Scholar
  12. 呂一燃(主編),《南海諸島:地理,歷史,主權》,黑龍江敎育出版 社,哈爾賓,1992。Google Scholar
  13. 呂昭義,《英屬$度與中國西南邊彊(1774–1991年)》,中國社會科學出 版社,北京,1996。Google Scholar
  14. 羅香林,《蒲壽庚研究》,香港中國學社,1959。Google Scholar
  15. 馬汝珩,馬大正(編),《清代邊彊開發研究》。Google Scholar
  16. 馬曜(主編),《雲南簡史》,雲南人民出版社,1983。Google Scholar
  17. 歐陽修,《新唐書》。Google Scholar
  18. 錢古訓原著(江應樑校注),《白夷傳》,雲南人民出版社。Google Scholar
  19. 司馬遷,《史記》。Google Scholar
  20. 譚其骧,《中國歷史地圖集》(8冊),北京,1992。Google Scholar
  21. 王國維(校),《水經注校》,上海再版,1984。Google Scholar
  22. 翁獨健(主編),《中國民族關係史綱要》,北京,1990。Google Scholar
  23. 吳永章,《中國土司制度淵源與發展史》,四川民族出版社,1988。 鄒啟宇,苗文俊(主編)《中國人口(雲南分冊)》,中國財政經濟出版 社,1989 。Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Geoff Wade

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations