Pius II, elected in 1458, can be called the first Renaissance pope. A humanist himself, he was an eager patron of artists and fellow humanists. He was determined to beautify Rome and make it a city worthy of the papacy; transforming Rome became a major concern for the papacy for the next two centuries. Nepotism was another trait associated with Renaissance popes. Many an earlier pope had given a red hat to a nephew, but Pius and most of his successors for the next 250 years went well beyond that. He made three nephews cardinals, and other relatives were given lucrative positions in the Church and the Papal States.
KeywordsHenry VIII Roman People Lock Door French Army Charles Versus
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 4.J. Burchard, Diarium, ed. by E. Celeni, 2 vols. (1911–42), I, pp. 30–43.Google Scholar
- 5.The next paragraphs are from E Baumgartner, Louis XII (New York, 1994), pp. 179ff.Google Scholar
- E Guicciardini, History ofItaly, trans. by A. Goddard, 10 vols. (London, 1753–56), III, pp. 238ff;Google Scholar
- A. Giustinian, Dispacci, ed. by P. Villari, 3 vols. (Florence, 1876 ), II, pp. 175–78. The quote is in Giustinian, II, p. 177.Google Scholar
- 11.D. Chambers, Cardinal Bainbridge in the Court of Rome 1509–1514 (Oxford, 1965), p. 43.Google Scholar
- 14.B. Hallman, Italian Cardinals, Reform, and the Church as Property (Berkeley, Calif, 1985), p. 66. The author notes that the tiara was mortgaged again at one of the conclaves of 1555.Google Scholar
- 15.G. Bergenroth, Calendar of Letters… Relating to the Negotiations between England and Spain (reprint, Nendeln, Liechtenstein, 1969), II, p. 383. The list of cardinals present for the conclave is given on pp. 388–90.Google Scholar