Election by the College of Cardinals, 1059–1274

  • Frederic J. Baumgartner

Abstract

By 1059 the papacy had become a powerful institution controlling not only the religious life of Western Europeans but also extensive revenues and a large state in central Italy. Naturally, the question of who would control that much power and wealth was a major concern for many, not least the Holy Roman Emperor. By then, however, the Catholic clergy had developed a sense of being a separate class with its own interests and goals. The issue of who would choose the pope became a point of great contention between emperor and churchmen, and thereby between laity and clergy. There was much at stake, and the issue’s resolution went a long way toward determining the nature of medieval society.

Keywords

Europe Syria Expense Bark Abate 

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Notes

  1. 1.
    English translation in E. Henderson, trans., Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages (London, 1892), pp. 361–65.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    E. Emerton, trans., The Correspondence of Pope Gregory VII (New York, 1932), pp. 2–3.Google Scholar
  3. 5.
    See Urban’s announcement of his election to the abbot of Cluny, in R. Sommerville, Pope Urban II (Oxford, 1996), pp. 41–42.Google Scholar
  4. 6.
    I. Robinson, The Papacy 1073–1198 (Cambridge, 1990), pp. 68–70.Google Scholar
  5. 9.
    Quoted in M. Taylor, “The Election of Innocent III,” in D. Wood, ed., The Church and Sovereignty c. 590–1918 (Oxford, 1991 ), p. 98.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Frederic J. Baumgartner 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederic J. Baumgartner

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