Heretics or Lawyers? Propaganda and Toulousan Identity Through the Albigensian Crusade

  • Christopher K. Gardner
Part of the The New Middle Ages book series (TNMA)


Issues of group identity and community seem to have enjoyed a notable popularity among medievalists in recent years. Some scholars emphasize ideals to create unity, whereas others stress local struggles over local power; yet, there is consensus that the late twelfth and thirteenth centuries demarcate an era of especially contentious conflicts over political and religious identities as kings consolidated their powers and rights, crusaders exported a Latin, feudal Christianity to the east and Islamic Spain, and clerics ever more sharply delineated orthodox belief and the punishments meted out to those who fell outside the delineations.1


Thirteenth Century Legal Tradition Town Council Military Campaign Urban Council 
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  1. 1.
    To name but a few books that have been particularly influential in my work on Toulouse and on group identities at this time: André Armengaud and Robert Lafont (dirs.), Histoire d’Occitanie (Paris: Hachette, 1979).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fredric L. Cheyette, Ermengard of Narbonne and the World of the Troubadours (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2001), pp. 41–43.Google Scholar
  3. 8.
    Joseph Reese Strayer, The Albigensian Crusades (New York: Dial Press, 1971).Google Scholar
  4. 19.
    Les Vaux-de-Cernay, The History of the Albigensian Crusade, trans. W.A. Sibly and M.D. Sibly (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1998).Google Scholar
  5. 20.
    Beverly Mayne Kienzle, Cistercians, Heresy, and Crusade in Occitania, 1145–1229: Preaching in the Lord’s Vineyard (Woodbridge, UK:York Medieval Press/Boydell Press, 2001), pp. 78–134.Google Scholar
  6. 24.
    To supplement the works cited above in n7, see John H. Arnold, Inquisition and Power, Catharism and the Confessing Subject in Medieval Languedoc (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001), esp. pp. 138–63;Google Scholar
  7. 31.
    Yves Dossat, ed., Saisimentum Comitatus Tholosani (Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale, 1966).Google Scholar
  8. 32.
    William Chester Jordan, “Communal Administration in France, 1257–1270: Problems Discovered and Solutions Imposed,” Revue belge de philologie et d’histore 59 (1981): 292–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 33.
    Maurice Prin and Jean Rocacher, Le Château NarbonnaisLe Parlement et le Palais de Justice de Toulouse (Toulouse: Privat, 1991), pp. 45–53.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Stephanie Hayes-Healy 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher K. Gardner

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