Down and Out in Paris and London

  • J. R. Hammond
Part of the Literary Companions book series (LICOM)


The first draft of the book which eventually became Down and Out in Paris and London was commenced early in 1930. The manuscript of this first version does not survive, but it was apparently cast in the form of a diary and described Orwell’s experiences of poverty in Paris.1 He worked steadily and enthusiastically on the draft through much of 1930, working partly at the home of his sister and her husband at Bramlcy near Leeds, and partly at his parents’ home at Southwold. The manuscript was completed by October of that year, and on the advice of his friend Mabel Fierz he forwarded it to Jonathan Cape. Cape in due course rejected the book on the grounds that it was too short and fragmentary, but Orwell was sufficiently encouraged by their letter of rejection to feel that if he were to revise and lengthen the manuscript the publishers would be willing to reconsider it.


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Copyright information

© J. R. Hammond 1982

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  • J. R. Hammond

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