From One to Many

  • Paula Sutter Fichtner
Part of the European History in Perspective book series (EUROHIP)


First-time travelers in the parts of east central and southeastern Europe that once belonged to the Habsburg empire often shake their heads at the bewildering mix of languages they encounter. Each border crossing turns up yet another: one of the various Slavic tongues and their subtle dialects, possibly Magyar, or Latin-based Rumanian, or Italian, even fragments of German here and there. How was it possible, many people ask, to govern so diverse an array of speech communities collectively? To know that mutual self-interest promoted close cooperation between Habsburg rulers and the elites in their various territories for almost three centuries explains something of the hold that the dynasty had over its lands, but not completely. How did it hold together all of its peoples, including the vast body of ordinary humankind who challenged the dynasty and its sociopolitical foundations only under extreme provocation, and openly defied it almost never?


Eighteenth Century Seventeenth Century Jesuit College Czech Language HABSBURG Monarchy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 2.
    W. M. Johnston, The Austrian Mind: An Intellectual and Social History (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1972), p. 14. Cf. Steinberg, Salzburg Festival, p. 7.Google Scholar
  2. 4.
    J. W. O’Malley, The First Jesuits (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993), pp. 39–41; Melton, Absolutism, p. 64;Google Scholar
  3. D. Kosáry, Culture and Society in Eighteenth Century Hungary, trans. Z. Béres with the assistance of C. Sullivan (Budapest: Corvina, 1987), pp. 191–2;Google Scholar
  4. W. Michal, ‘Die Darstellung der Affekten auf der Jesuitenbühne’, in G. Hol thus (ed.), Theaterwesen und dramatische Literatur: Beiträge zur Geschichte des Theaters (Tübingen: A. Francke, 1987), pp. 234–5.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ignatius Loyola, The Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius, trans. A. Mottola (Garden City, NY: Image Books, 1964), p. 54.Google Scholar
  6. 8.
    H. S. Waldeck [pseud.] (ed.), Lese aus Abraham A Sancta Clara (Brixlegg, Tirol: Heimat-Verlag, 1938), p. 38. Trans. P. S. Fichtner.Google Scholar
  7. 18.
    J. Storey, An Introduction to Cultural Theory and Popular Culture, 2nd edn (London: Prentice Hall, 1997 [1993]), pp. 17–18.Google Scholar
  8. 22.
    A. Seigfried, ‘Die Dogmatik im 18. Jahrhundert unter dem Einfluß von Aufklärung und Jansenismus’, in E. Kovács (ed.), Katholische Aufklärung und Josephinismus (Munich: Oldenbourg, 1979), pp. 2545;Google Scholar
  9. E. Turczynski, ‘The Role of the Orthodox Church in Adapting and Transforming the Western Enlightenment in Southeastern Europe’, East European Quarterly, 9 (1975), p. 433;Google Scholar
  10. P. Barton, Ignatius Aurelius Feßler: Vom Barockkatholizismus zur Erweckungsbewegung (Vienna: Böhlau, 1969), pp. 30, 49.Google Scholar
  11. 25.
    L. Bodi, Tauwetter in Wien: Zur Prose der österreichischen Aufklärung, 1781–1795 (Frankfurt: S. Fischer, 1977), p. 106;Google Scholar
  12. D. S. Luft, ‘Austria as a Region of German Culture’, Austrian History Yearbook, 23 (1992), p. 140; R. Bauer, ‘Österreichische Literatur oder Literatur aus Österreich?’, in Kann/Prinz, Deutschland und Österreich, p. 269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 27.
    Melton, Absolutism, pp. 83, 93; R. J. W. Evans, ‘Joseph II and Nationality in the Habsburg Lands’, in Scott, Enlightened Absolutism, p. 211; Kosáry, Culture and Society, pp. 102–3; D. Sayer, The Coasts of Bohemia: A Czech History, trans. A. Sayer (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998), pp. 68–9, 72.Google Scholar
  14. 34.
    J. Haider, Die Geschichte des Theaterwesens im Benediktinerstift Seitenstetten im Barock und Aufklärung, Theatergeschichte Österreichs, vol. 4, no. 1 (Vienna: Verlag der Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1973), pp. 78–9, 131, 146, 149–50.Google Scholar
  15. 36.
    P. Nettl, W. A. Mozart, 1756–1791 (Frankfurt: Fischer, 1955), pp. 55–6.Google Scholar
  16. 39.
    F. Raimund, ‘Der Verschwender’, in Raimund, Sämtliche Werke (Munich: Winkler, 1960), p. 583. Trans. P. S. Fichtner. See also Magris, Habsburgische Mythos, pp. 80, 82–3.Google Scholar
  17. 40.
    In J. Nestroy, Nestroys Werke, pt 1, Volksstücke und Possen, ed. O. Rommel (Berlin: Bong and Co., 1908), p. 170. Trans. P. S. Fichtner.Google Scholar
  18. 41.
    Steinberg, Salzburg Festival, p. 7; J. Boyer, Political Radicalism in Late Imperial Vienna: Origins of the Christian Social Movement, 1848–1897, 2 vols (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981–95), vol. 1, p. 116.Google Scholar
  19. 46.
    K. A. Schroeder, ‘Kunst als Erzählung: Theorie und Ästhetik der Genremalerei’, in G. Frodl and K. A. Schroeder (eds), Malerei zwischen Wiener Kongreß und Revolution (Munich: Prestel, 1992), pp. 9–34; W. Häusler, ‘Biedermeier oder Vormärz?: Anmerkungen zur österreichischen Sozialgeschichte in der Epoche der bürgerlichen Revolution’, in ibid., pp. 35–45.Google Scholar
  20. 50.
    E. P. Noether, Seeds of Italian Nationalism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1951), p. 118.Google Scholar
  21. 54.
    Beales, Risorgimento, p. 58; S. Pellico: My Prisons: Le Mie Prigioni, trans. I. G. Capaldi, SJ (London: Oxford, 1963), p. 198.Google Scholar
  22. 56.
    D. M. Smith, Mazzini (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1994), pp. 3, 38.Google Scholar
  23. 58.
    G. Barany, ‘The Age of Royal Absolutism, 1790–1848’, in P. Sugar (ed.), A History of Hungary (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1990), p. 180; Jones, Hungarian Writers, pp. xx, xxiv;Google Scholar
  24. L. Wolff, Inventing Eastern Europe: The Map of Civilization on the Mind of the Enlightenment (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1994), pp. 306–7, 312.Google Scholar
  25. 70.
    A. Moritsch, ‘Der Austroslavismus–ein verfrühtes Konzept zur politischen Neugestaltung Mitteleuropas’, in A. Moritsch (ed.), Der Austroslavismus: ein verfrühtes Konzept zur politischen Neugestaltung Mitteleuropas (Vienna: Böhlau, 1996), pp. 13–14; Magocsi, Ukraine, pp. 389–402;Google Scholar
  26. P. R. Magocsi, The Shaping of a National Identity: Sub- carpathian Rus’, 1848–1948 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1978).Google Scholar
  27. 71.
    On this question generally, see M. Hroch, ‘The Social Composition of the Czech Patriots in Bohemia, 1827–1848’, in P. Brock and H. G. Skilling (eds), The Czech Renaissance of the Nineteenth Century (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1970), pp. 33–52. See also Pech, Czech Revolution, pp. 27–8, and Sayer, Coasts, pp. 69–83.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Paula Sutter Fichtner 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paula Sutter Fichtner

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations