War Welfare and Public Health
Hopkins’ work with the Board of Child Welfare (BCW) proved to be short-lived. He resigned from his position in late December 1917, publicly citing budget cuts as his reason for leaving.1 Political pressure and administrative problems, however, led to his disillusionment with the program, which also contributed to his resignation. In addition, America’s entry into the world war shifted Hopkins’ focus to broader issues.
KeywordsSugar Burner Dust Depression Europe
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- 6.Emma O. Lundberg, Public Aid to Mothers with Dependent Children (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor, Children’s Bureau, 1928b), 3–11. “Defer Widows’ Pensions,” New York Times, August 4, 1915, 7.Google Scholar
- 12.Halsted MS, Chapter 4, 82–83. Ethel Gross Hopkins, probably reflecting her belief in woman’s equality, also registered for the draft and was issued a draft card. She apparently did not agree with many of the women’s organizations opposing the war. See Barbara J. Steinson, American Women’s Activism in World War I (New York: Garland Publishing, 1982).Google Scholar
- 30.Harry Hopkins, “Report of the Bureau of Civilian Relief Gulf Division, American Red Cross for the Month of September, 1918,” ARC, 21; “Report of the Bureau of Civilian Relief Gulf Division, American Red Cross for the Month of December, 1918,” ARC, 201:149.18. The Red Cross was supported by private contributions. Additional funds came from the sale of Christmas Seals. Rhea Foster Dulles, The American Red Cross: A History (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1950), 90.Google Scholar
- 32.W. J. Leppert to Harry Hopkins, January 29, 1919, ARC, 212: 149.01. By 1918 there were 3,864 local Red Cross chapters across the nation. Charles Hurd, The Compact History of the American Red Cross (New York: Hawthorne Books, 1959), 151.Google Scholar
- 35.John F. McClymer, War and Welfare: Social Engineering in America, 1890–1925 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1980), 163–167.Google Scholar
- 64.Clyde V. Kiser, The Milbank Memorial Fund: Its Leaders and Its Work 1905–1974 (New York: Milbank Memorial Fund, 1975), 24. Kingsbury had long been interested in public health work, especially fighting tuberculosis, which was known to be the chief cause of death worldwide and therefore closely associated with the causes of poverty. When the New York State Charities Aid Association had hired him to do antituberculosis work in 1907, he and his staff mounted a statewide campaign; by 1917, New York City had the most advanced tuberculosis laws in the nation. Trattner, 129.Google Scholar
- 72.Harry L. Hopkins, “Consolidating Private Health Work Under One Banner,” The Nation’s Health, 9 (January, 1927): 2, Reprint, Hopkins File, American Lung Association Archives, New York City.Google Scholar