The Impact of the Wars

  • A. J. Pollard
Part of the British History in Perspective book series (BHP)


Sir Thomas Smith pictured an England in the later fifteenth century in which the country was running with blood and almost half the population killed. Reaction against such exaggeration has led twentieth-century historians to play down the length of the Wars, the level of involvement even in the highest ranks of society, and the extent of disruption. certainly, there was a tendency for contemporaries and early historians to dramatize the impact of the Wars. But it is possible to go too far in the direction of minimizing the scale. They were not insignificant.


Fifteenth Century Strong Presumption Southern County Northern County Professional Soldier 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    J. R. Lander, Crown and Nobility, 1450–1509 (London: Edward Arnold, 1976), p. 62Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Goodman, The Wars of the Roses: Military Activity and English Society, 1452–97 (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1981), pp. 227–8.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    C. D. Ross, The Wars of the Roses (London: Thames and Hudson, 1976), pp. 135–6.Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    K. B. McFarlane, ‘The Wars of the Roses’, in England in the Fifteenth Century (London: Hambledon Press, 1981), p. 244Google Scholar
  5. 7.
    C. Ross, Edward IV (London: Eyre Methuen, 1974Google Scholar
  6. 8.
    Pugh, ‘The Magnates’, p. 114; Lander, Crown and Nobility, p. 25; C. F. Richmond, ‘1485 and All That’, in P. W. Hammond (ed.), Richard III: Lordship, Loyalty and Law (Gloucester: Alan Sutton, 1986), p. 173Google Scholar
  7. 11.
    Ibid., p. 254; M. A. Hicks, False, Fleeting Perjur’d Clarence: George Duke of Clarence, 1449–78 (Gloucester: Alan Sutton, 1980), pp. 183–4Google Scholar
  8. 13.
    R. L. Storey, ‘The North of England’, in Chrimes et al. (eds), Fifteenth-century England, pp. 138–42; A. J. Pollard, ‘St Cuthbert and the Hog: Richard III and the County Palatine of Durham, 1471–85’, in R. A. Griffiths and J. W. Sherborne (eds), Kings and Nobles in the Later Middle Ages (Gloucester: Alan Sutton, 1986), pp. 114–23.Google Scholar
  9. 14.
    R. G. Davies, ‘The Church and the Wars of the Roses’, in A. J. Pollard (ed.), The Wars of the Roses (London: Macmillan, 1995), pp. 134–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. C. S. L. Davies, ‘Bishop Morton, the Holy See, and the Accession of Henry VII’, English Historical Review, 102: 1(1987), pp. 24–5.Google Scholar
  11. 16.
    M. A. Hicks, Warwick the Kingmaker (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 143–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. C. F. Richmond, ‘The Earl of Warwick, Domination of the Channel and the Naval Dimension to the Wars of the Roses. 1456–1460’, Southern History, 20/21 (1998–99), pp. 1–7.Google Scholar
  13. 17.
    Thomas More, Utopia (Complete Works, vol. 4, Yale University Press, 1965), p. 63; W. Stubbs, The Constitutional History of England, vol. III, 5th edn (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1897), p. 559Google Scholar
  14. J. R. Green, A Short History of the English People, 3rd edn (London: Macmillan, 1916), p. 302Google Scholar
  15. R. L. Storey, The End of the House of Lancaster (London: Barrie and Rockliff, 1966), p. 9.Google Scholar
  16. 19.
    Hicks, Clarence, p. 185; C. Rawcliffe, The Staffords, Earls of Stafford and Dukes of Buckingham, 1394–1521 (Cambridge University Press, 1978), pp. 68–9; T. Percy, The Northumberland Household Book (London: privately published, 1777), pp. 45Google Scholar
  17. 20.
    J. P. Collier (ed.), Household Books of John Duke of Norfolk (London: Roxburghe Club, 1844), pp. 445–53Google Scholar
  18. 22.
    Dunham, Lord Hastings, pp. 27–9; M. A. Hicks, Bastard Feudalism (London: Longman, 1995), pp. 43–8.Google Scholar
  19. 24.
    N. Davis (ed.), Paston Letters and Papers of the Fifteenth Century, Part II (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971), p. 532.Google Scholar
  20. 34.
    C. F. Richmond, ‘Fauconberg’s Kentish Rising of May 1471’, English Historical Review, 85(1970), pp. 673–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 35.
    A. J. Pollard, ‘The Richmondshire Community of Gentry during the Wars of the Roses’, in C. Ross (ed.), Patronage, Pedigree and Power in Later Medieval England (Gloucester: Alan Sutton, 1979), pp. 37–42.Google Scholar
  22. 36.
    J. Nicolson and R. Burn, History of Westmorland and Cumberland (London: Strachan and Cadell, 1777), pp. 96–7Google Scholar
  23. 39.
    J. Gairdner (ed.), Paston Letters 1422–1509, vol. III (London: Chatto and Windus, 1904), p. 30.Google Scholar
  24. 41.
    C. L. Scofield, The Life and Reign of Edward IV, 2 vols (London: Longman, 1923), vol. 1, pp. 135–6.Google Scholar
  25. 42.
    A. J. Pollard, ‘North, South and Richard III’, The Ricardian, 5, 74(1981), pp. 384–9Google Scholar
  26. 43.
    McFarlane, ‘Wars of the Roses’, p. 241. For further discussion, see H. M. Jewell, The North/South Divide: The Origins of Northern Consciousness in England (Manchester University Press, 1994); and A. J. Pollard, ‘The Characteristics of the Fifteenth-century North’, in J. C. Appleby and P. Dalton (eds), Government, Religion and Society in Northern England, 1000–1700 (Stroud: Sutton, 1997), pp. 131–43.Google Scholar
  27. 44.
    A. J. Pollard, ‘The Tyranny of Richard III’, Journal of Medieval History, 3(1971), pp. 158–63.Google Scholar
  28. 46.
    R. A. Griffiths and R. S. Thomas, The Making of the Tudor Dynasty (Gloucester: Sutton, 1985), pp. 47–73Google Scholar
  29. R. A. Griffiths, Sir Rhys ap Thomas and his Family (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1993)Google Scholar
  30. 47.
    S. G. Ellis, Ireland in the Age of the Tudors, 1447–1603 (London: Longman, 1998), pp. 11–97Google Scholar
  31. 48.
    Philippe de Commynes, Memoirs: The Reign of Louis XI, 1461–83, trans. Michael Jones (London: Penguin, 1972), p. 345.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© A. J. Pollard 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. J. Pollard

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations