Conclusion: Swords into Plowshares Then and Now

  • Raymond Cohen
  • Raymond Westbrook
Part of the Culture and Religion in International Relations book series (CRIR)


To the Inhabitants of the ancient Near East, certain truths were sell-evident. The earth was flat and the sun went round the earth. Below the surface of the earth was the world where the spirits of the dead resided. Above were the heavens, where most of the gods were located, although some were also present on earth. The gods were a reality, sometimes visible to the naked eye in the form of stars or winds or rivers, but mostly accessible through dreams or through the Intermediacy of specialists such as diviners and prophets.


World Peace Public Diplomacy Diplomatic Mission Diplomatic Negotiation Irenic Vision 
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Copyright information

© Raymond Cohen and Raymond Westbrook 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raymond Cohen
  • Raymond Westbrook

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