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The Medical Context of Bones

  • Roger Cooter
Part of the Science, Technology and Medicine in Modern History book series (STMMH)

Abstract

Concepts, institutions, pioneers and techniques comprise what are often regarded as the essential building blocks for the history of a medical specialty. This chapter considers those integral to the history of orthopaedics. In so doing, however, a part of its purpose is to indicate how insufficient they are as historical explanation for the making of the modern specialism. More significant — as subsequent chapters will show — were the politics of surgery, ideologies bearing on childhood, economic interests, and the experience of war.

Keywords

Orthopaedic Surgery Club Foot Conservative Surgery Hallux Valgus Medical Context 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 1.
    For the history of bone and joint surgery prior to ‘orthopaedics’ see Edgar M. Bick, Source Book of Orthopaedics (Baltimore, 1937);Google Scholar
  2. Bruno Valentin, Geschichte der Orthopadie (Stuttgart, 1961), esp. pp. 158–85; andGoogle Scholar
  3. David Le Vay, The History of Orthopaedics: an account of the study and practice of orthopaedics from the earliest times to the modern era (Carnforth, Lancashire, 1990).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Foucault, Surveiller et punir: naissance de la prison (Paris, 1975).Google Scholar
  5. 6.
    The third edition of Robley Dunglison’s Medical Lexicon: a new dictionary of medical science (Philadelphia, 1842) contains ‘Orthopae-dia — The part of medicine whose object is to prevent and correct deformity in the bodies of children’. However the ninth edition (1853) adds ‘Often used, however, with a more extensive signification, to embrace the correction or prevention of deformities at all ages. Orthosomatics, Orthosomatice (from ... “right” and ... “body”) has been proposed as a preferable term.’ See alsoGoogle Scholar
  6. J. Cohen, ‘Orthopaedics’ in J. Walton, P. B. Beeson and R. B. Scott (eds), Oxford Companion to Medicine (Oxford, 1986), p. 954.Google Scholar
  7. 9.
    See Charles Macalister, The Origins and History of the Liverpool Royal Southern Hospital, with personal reminiscences (Liverpool, 1936), p. 58.Google Scholar
  8. 10.
    See J. A. Cholmeley, The History of the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital (1985). The Royal Orthopaedic and Spinal Hospital, Birmingham, dates from 1817, but it only took this title in 1888. It was originally known as ‘The Institution for the Relief of Hernia, Club Feet, Spinal Diseases, and all Bodily Deformities’ and was mainly concerned with the supply of trusses and braces. Until 1871 it had only outpatient facilities; by the First World War it had 30 beds. SeeGoogle Scholar
  9. J. Ernest Jones, A History of the Hospitals and other Charities of Birmingham (Birmingham, 1909).Google Scholar
  10. 15.
    W.J. Little, ‘Orthopaedic Surgery’ in T. Holmes (ed.), A System of Surgery, vol.3 (1862), pp. 557–614 at p. 557.Google Scholar
  11. 21.
    Adolf Lorenz, My Life and Work: the search for a missing glove (New York, 1936), p. 78.Google Scholar
  12. 24.
    See E. Muirhead Little, ‘Specialism and General Surgery’, JOS, 1 (1919), pp. 63–6 at p. 64. See also the editorial in Lancet, 3 Oct. 1891, p. 774; andGoogle Scholar
  13. L. Granshaw, ‘“Fame and Fortune by Means of Bricks and Mortar”: the medical profession and specialist hospitals in Britain, 1800–1948’, in Granshaw and Roy Porter (eds), The Hospital in History (1989), pp. 199–220, esp. p. 212.Google Scholar
  14. 31.
    On Lister’s amputations between 1871 and 1877, see W. Watson Cheyne, Antiseptic Surgery: its principles, practice, history, and results (1881), pp. 372ff.Google Scholar
  15. 38.
    See Owsei Temkin, ‘Surgery and the Rise of Modern Medical Thought’ in his The Double Face of Janus (Baltimore, 1977), pp. 487–96. The practice, as developed in France, also had philosophical and professional meanings. See Gelfand, ‘Empiricism’, p. 51. For America, seeGoogle Scholar
  16. Gert H. Brieger, ‘From Conservative to Radical Surgery in Late Nineteenth-Century America’ in Lawrence (ed.), Medical Theory, Surgical Practice, pp. 216–31.Google Scholar
  17. 39.
    See Max Neuburger, The Doctrine of the Healing Power of Nature Throughout the Course of Time, trans. L.J. Boyd (New York, [1942]).Google Scholar
  18. 47.
    H. Marsh, ‘On Manipulation; or, the use of forcible movement as a means of surgical treatment’, St Barts Hosp. J., 14 (1878), pp. 205–19; idem, ‘Bone-setting’, BMJ, 27 May 1911, pp. 1231–9.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Roger Cooter 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roger Cooter
    • 1
  1. 1.Wellcome Unit for the History of MedicineUniversity of ManchesterUK

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