EU-Russia Relations and the Repercussions on the “In-Betweens”

  • Stefan Gänzle


After the end of the Cold War in 1989, the European Union (EU) was compelled to redefine its relationship with the countries of the former Eastern bloc. It was only in 1988 that the European Community (EC)1 agreed upon granting financial assistance to support Poland and Hungary on their difficult paths toward market economies and democracy. Concomitantly, the EU was engaged in negotiations with the Soviet Union about a new Trade and Cooperation Agreement, which entered into force in April 1990. While at that time the EC considered a unified approach toward Eastern Europe, the dismantlement of the Soviet Union provided yet another incentive for the Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs) to realign themselves with Western institutions. Hence, these states2 of the former Soviet sphere of influence started demanding a membership perspective within both the EC/EU and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Cooperation with and integration into the EU and NATO subsequently became the central foreign policy objectives of most of the CEECs. As a consequence, the “integration divide” between the “West” and the “East” of Eastern Europe came into existence.


European Union Foreign Policy North Atlantic Treaty Organization European Union Enlargement World Trade Organization Membership 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 5.
    See Christophe Hillion, “Partnership and Cooperation Agreements between the European Union and the New Independent States of the Ex-Soviet Union,” European Foreign Affairs Review 3 (1998): 399–420.Google Scholar
  2. 7.
    Andrei Zagorski, “Policies towards Russia, Ukraine, Moldova and Belarus,” in European Union Foreign and Security Policy: Towards a Neighbourhood Strategy, ed. Roland Dannreuther (London: Routledge, 2004 ), 80.Google Scholar
  3. 19.
    Dov Lynch, Russia faces Europe, Chaillot Paper No. 60 ( Paris: Institute for Security Studies, 2003 ), 85.Google Scholar
  4. 29.
    Cf. Karen E. Smith, “The Outsiders: The European Neighbourhood Policy,” International Affairs 81, no. 4 (2005): 759;Google Scholar
  5. Dimitri Danilov, “Russia and the ESDP: Partnership Strategy versus Strategic Partnership,” in Europe Alone: Transatlantic Relations and European Security, ed. Stefan Gänzle and Allen Sens (London: Palgrave, 2007 ).Google Scholar
  6. 34.
    European Commission, Communication from the Commission, European Neighbourhood Policy, Strategy Paper, COM (2004) 373 final, Brussels, May 12, 2004, 8.Google Scholar
  7. 42.
    Katinka Barysch, “The EU and Russia. Strategic Partners or Squabbling Neighbours?” Centre for European Reform, May 2004, 26.Google Scholar
  8. 43.
    Michael Emerson, “EU-Russia. Four Common Spaces and the Proliferation of the Fuzzy,” CEPS Policy Brief No. 71, May 2005, 2.Google Scholar
  9. 44.
    Dieter Mahncke, “Russia’s Attitude to the European Security and Defence Policy,” European Foreign Policy Review 6 (2001): 428.Google Scholar
  10. 45.
    Tuomas Forsberg, “The EU-Russia Security Partnership: Why the Opportunity Was Missed,” European Foreign Policy Review 9 (2004): 251f.Google Scholar
  11. 72.
    Ahto Lobjakas, “Moldova: EU Officials Say Union Membership Hopes Are Premature,” Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Brussels, April 11, 2006.Google Scholar
  12. 73.
    Andrew Rettman, “Moldova’s EU hopes piggyback on Romanian accession,” EUobserver, March 30, 2006.Google Scholar
  13. 80.
    See Mark Beunderman, “Belarus opposition leader calls EU visa ban insufficient,” EUobserver, April 10, 2006.Google Scholar
  14. 81.
    See Andrew Rettman, “Belarus likely to join Burma as EU trade pariah,” EUobserver, June 14, 2006.Google Scholar
  15. 83.
    See Stefan Gänzle, “Externalizing Governance and Europeanization in EU-Russian Relations,” in The External Relations of the EU, ed. Joan DeBardeleben (London: Palgrave, 2007 ).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Oliver Schmidtke and Serhy Yekelchyk, eds. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefan Gänzle

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations