Cultural Convergence: The Equine Connection between Muscovy and Europe

  • Ann M. Kleimola
Part of the Early Modern Cultural Studies book series (EMCSS)


Is Russia Europe? The question divided the nineteenth-century Russian intelligentsia, and has returned to haunt the post-1991 society of the New Russians. Westerners who visited the Muscovite Russian state in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries described a fascinating but alien place. By the late eighteenth century, however, Russian aristocrats living in the empire shaped by Peter the Great (1682–1725) and Catherine the Great (1762–96) inhabited a world increasingly like that of their European counterparts. Muscovite “horse culture” both contributed to this process of convergence and reflected its progress.


Seventeenth Century Sixteenth Century Austrian Emperor Early Modern Period Horse Breeding 
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© Karen Raber and Treva J. Tucker 2005

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  • Ann M. Kleimola

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