Who’s Looking? The Animal Gaze in the Fiction of Brigitte Kronauer and Clarice Lispector

  • Jutta Ittner


We feed a bird, hold a kitten, walk our dog, and watch the magic happen—unseeing eyes and indifferent stares are miraculously transformed into friendly looks. Our desire to be face to face with animals is so apparent, so personal, and at the same time so vague that it raises a multitude of questions about the relationship between humans and animals, questions that seem as pressing as they are unanswerable. What is this fascination that makes people flock to see a pig named Babe or a pair of pandas? What makes us come back again and again to the zoo, that sad “monument to the impossibility of animal encounters,”1 in order to catch the eye of the tiger behind bars—what are we hoping for?


Human Consciousness Maned Wolf Impersonal Pronoun Visual Encounter Electric Animal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    John Berger, “Why Look at Animals?,” in About Looking (New York: Vintage, 1980), 19.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Akira Mizuta Lippitt, Electric Animal: Toward a Rhetoric of Wildlife, (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000), 6.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Steve Baker, The Postmodern World (London: Reaktion, 2000), 20.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wendy Wheeler, A New Modernity? Change in Science, Literature, and Politics (London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1999), 17.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Donna Haraway, Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinventing of Nature (New York.— Routledge, 1991), 12.Google Scholar
  6. 9.
    Helene Cixous, Reading with Clarice Lispector (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987), 99.Google Scholar
  7. 13.
    R. Lane Kauffmann, “The Other in Question: Dialogical Experiments in Montaigne, Kafka, and Cortazar,” in Tullio Maranhao, ed., The Interpretation of Dialogue, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990),181.Google Scholar
  8. 17.
    Bob Marvin and Garry Mullan, ed., Zoo Culture (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1999), 3.Google Scholar
  9. 35.
    Will McNeill, Heidegger: Visions: Of Animals, Others and the Divine (Warwick: Warwick University Press, 1993), 26.Google Scholar
  10. 41.
    Mary Douglas, Purity and Danger: An Analysis of the Concepts of Pollution and Taboo (London and New York: Ark, 1984), 41.Google Scholar
  11. 43.
    Helene Cixous, Three Steps on the Ladder of Writing (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993), 116–119.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Mary S. Pollock and Catherine Rainwater 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jutta Ittner

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations