Who May Speak for the Animals? Deep Ecology in Linda Hogan’s Power and A. A. Carr’s Eye Killers

  • Catherine Rainwater


Atangle of unexamined cultural assumptions about nature and indigenous people underlies much of the discourse of early, and even present-day America. The semiotic equation of “wild” American Indians with a “hideous and desolate wilderness, full of wild beasts” persists well into the nineteenth century2 The Eurocentric story of “progress” underlying the doctrine of Manifest Destiny was constructed around biblically and philosophically grounded differences between nature—phenomena to be exploited and subdued—and humanity—the superior, rational beings chosen by God to preside over the rest of creation. In the western grand design, nonhuman animals and the land fell unam- biguously to the inferior, “nature” side of the equation, but often and paradoxically, so did some human beings, including Indians.


Indigenous People Nonhuman Animal Deep Ecology Ritual Sacrifice Florida Panther 
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© Mary S. Pollock and Catherine Rainwater 2005

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  • Catherine Rainwater

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