In a World of Warfare: Indians and the Wars for Empire
The contest for North America was not simply a battle between Indians and Europeans. Various European powers—England, France, Spain, Holland, Sweden, and even Russia on the northwest coast—had imperial ambitions on the continent and competed with one another at the same time as they endeavored to establish a hold on the lands of the Indians. By the late seventeenth century, the contest in eastern North America had boiled down to a struggle for empire among the French in Canada and the upper Ohio Valley, the English on the eastern seaboard, and the Spaniards in Florida and the lower Mississippi Valley. Competition between the European nations required that they compete in turn for the allegiance of different Indian nations. Indian nations thus had to pursue diplomatic negotiations with different English colonies as well as different European nations, and Indian people became entangled in European colonial wars fought in North America at the same time as they were fighting to keep their lands clear of European settlers.
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