The Yum: An Indigenous Model for Sustainable Development

  • Bertrade B. Ngo-Ngijol Banoum


In the early 1990s, Bogso, a village of approximately 2500 inhabitants, located in the southern part of Cameroon, in Central Africa, was in the midst of a protracted social and economic crisis. In the face of pervasive food shortages, the Bogso peasant women, whose primary economic activity is subsistence hoe agriculture, resorted to the traditional philosophy of Tum, a system whereby community members do agricultural work collectively on plots of land belonging to individual members of the group. To carry forward their plan, these women, under the leadership of Teclaire Ntomp, a retired teacher, organized the Group of Common Initiative of Bogso Women Farmers (GICBAP, a French acronym), to increase the cultivation and production of cassava1 in their village.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. “Considerations de genre et apport des associations des femmes”. Pauline Biyong & Teclaire Ntomp. Symposium, Mont Carmel-Centre International de Formation “Golda Meir”, Haifa, Israel. 2-8 avril, 1995.Google Scholar
  2. “Production alimentaire, l’apres recolte dans les villages, precedes et difficultes pour l’ecoulement des produits des centres ruraux vers les marches urbains”. Teclaire Ntomp. World Assembly on Food Security. Quebec City, Canada. 8-9 October 1995.Google Scholar
  3. “La lutte pour le developpement: la lecon de Bogso”. Rose Don Zoa, in Le Mouvement Paysan en Marche. Fevrier 1996, p. 19.Google Scholar
  4. “Toward Sustainable Food Security: Focus on Farmers”, in World Sustainable Agriculture Association Newsletter. Spring. 1996, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 4-5 & 10.Google Scholar
  5. “Grow Food Locally, Support Women Farmers, Says NGO Coalition”. Veronica Shofftall. One Country Newsletter of the Baha’i International Community. July–September 1996, Vol.8, Issue 2.Google Scholar
  6. “The Group of Common Initiative of the Women Farmers of Bogso (GICPAB)”, in The Emerging Role of NGOs in African Sustainable Development. Scott Chaplowe & J. Patrick Madden. UN-NADAF. WSAA. 1996, pp. 61-62. Also in For All Generations: Making World Agriculture More Sustainable, 1997.Google Scholar
  7. “The Group of Common Initiative of the Women Farmers of Bogso (GICPAB): The Fight Against Poverty in Cameroon Through Community Work: The Tum”. Teclaire Ntomp.Google Scholar
  8. Poverty Eradication in Africa: Selected Country Experiences. UN-OSCAL, 1997, pp. 68-72.Google Scholar
  9. Fighting Hunger With Cassava: A Gift of 22 Recipes from the Rural Women of Bogso. Introduced, edited & translated by Bertrade B. Ngo-Ngijol Banoum. African Action on AIDS Inc. (AAA Inc.). 1998.Google Scholar
  10. Activites du GICPAB de Bogso: Activites champetres et transformation du manioc, soins de sante et securite alimentaire, activites artisanale, environnementale, culturelle et economique, Photographic Essay. 1997. 1999. 2001.Google Scholar
  11. “The Bogso Women Farmers’ Best Practice: From Local Tum Organizing to Global Networking”. Submitted to the GWIA Project Selection Panel. Bertrade B. NgoNgijol Banoum. 2000.Google Scholar
  12. UNDP. Human Development Report. New York: Oxford university Press. 1990. 1997.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Oyèrónké Oyěwùmí 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bertrade B. Ngo-Ngijol Banoum

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations