Advertisement

E. H. Carr pp 234-257 | Cite as

E.H. Carr, Nationalism and the Future of the Sovereign State

  • Andrew Linklater

Abstract

The belief that Carr was an unqualified realist has been contested in the recent literature, but the question of how his position should be characterized lacks an established answer. Carr’s writings have provoked very different readings. Some regard his work as exemplifying a Utopian or critical realist approach to world affairs;1 Others have suggested that his writings contribute to the development of a radicalised rationalism.2 A third approach highlights various parallels between Carr’s writings and critical theory in the Marxian or post-Marxist vein.3 Other interpretations reaffirm the conventional reading of Carr which emphasises his part in creating a distinctively British variant on state-centric realism.

Keywords

International Relation Great Power Political Community Political Association Frankfurt School 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    K. Booth, ‘Security in Anarchy: Utopian Realism in Theory and Practice’, International Affairs, Vol. 67, 1991, pp. 527–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. P. Howe, ‘The Utopian Realism of E.H. Carr’, Review of International Studies, Vol. 20, 1994, pp. 277–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. R. Falk, ‘The Critical Realist Tradition and the Demystification of State Power: E.H. Carr, Hedley Bull and Robert W. Cox’, in S. Gill and J.H. Mittleman, eds, Innovation and Transformation in International Studies (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1997).Google Scholar
  4. 2.
    T. Dunne, Inventing International Society: A History of the English School (London, Macmillan, 1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 3.
    A. Linklater, ‘The Transformation of Political Community: E.H. Carr, Critical Theory and International Relations’, Review of International Studies, Vol. 23, No. 3, 1997, pp. 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 4.
    A. Linklater, The Transformation of Political Community: Ethical Foundations of the Post-Westphalian Era (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1998), chapter 5.Google Scholar
  7. 5.
    E.H. Carr, The Twenty Years’ Crisis: 1919–1939 (London, Macmillan, 1946), p. viii.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. Evans, ‘E.H. Carr and International Relations’, British Journal of International Studies, 1, 1975, p. 92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    E.H. Carr, The Future of Nations: Independence or Interdependence (London, Macmillan, 1941), p. 55.Google Scholar
  10. 15.
    E.H. Carr, The New Society (1951), p. 118.Google Scholar
  11. On Continental Keynesianism, see P. Hirst and G. Thompson, Globalisation in Question (Cambridge, Polity Press, 1996), pp. 163–4.Google Scholar
  12. 16.
    E.H. Carr, Nationalism and After (London, 1945), pp. 43–7, andGoogle Scholar
  13. 17.
    For a discussion of welfare nationalism, see H. Suganami, The Domestic Analogy and World Order Proposals (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1989), p. 13, footnote 34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 22.
    For further discussion, see A. Linklater, ‘Citizenship and Sovereignty in the Post-Westphalian State’, European Journal of International Relations, 2, 1996, pp. 77–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 37.
    K. Booth, ‘Security in Anarchy: Utopian Realism in Theory and Practice’, International Affairs, Vol. 67, No. 3, 1991, pp. 527–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. R. Falk, ‘The Critical Realist Tradition and the Demystification of State Power: E.H. Carr, Hedley Bull and Robert W. Cox’, in S. Gill and J.H. Mittleman, eds, Innovation and Transformation in International Studies, Cambridge, 1997.Google Scholar
  17. See also P. Howe, ‘The Utopian Realism of E.H. Carr’, Review of International Studies, Vol. 20, 1994, pp. 277–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 40.
    See E.H. Carr, What is History? (Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1961), p. 115.Google Scholar
  19. 61.
    See E.H. Carr, ‘The Future of International Government’, National Peace Council (London, 1941), p. 3.Google Scholar
  20. 63.
    See E.H. Carr, The Soviet Impact on the Western World (London, Macmillan, 1946), p. 116.Google Scholar
  21. 68.
    See R.G. Kaufman, ‘E.H. Carr, Winston Churchill, Reinhold Neibuhr and Us: The Case for Principled, Prudential, Democratic Realism’, Security Studies, 5, 1995, pp. 322–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 78.
    See H. Bull, The Anarchical Society: A Study of Order in World Politics (London, 1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. H. Bull and A. Watson, eds, The Expansion of International Society, Oxford 1984, andGoogle Scholar
  24. 82.
    H. Bull and A. Watson, eds, The Expansion of international Society (Oxford, 1984).Google Scholar
  25. 89.
    See also H. Bull, ‘The Twenty Years’ Crisis: Thirty Years After’, International Journal, 24, 1969, pp. 625–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 91.
    See E.H. Carr, International Relations Between the Two World Wars: 1919–1939 (London, Macmillan, 1965), pp. 47–8.Google Scholar
  27. 92.
    See F. Halliday, Rethinking International Relations (London, Macmillan, 1994), chapter 6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 99.
    See N. Wheeler, ‘Guardian Angels or Global Gangsters: A Review of the Ethical Claims of International Society,’ Political Studies, 44, 1996, pp. 123–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 100.
    U. Beck, The Reinvention of Politics: Rethinking Modernity in the Global Social Order (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1996).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew Linklater

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations