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Organizing for Homeland Security in Post-9/11 America

  • David B. Cohen
  • Alethia Cook

Abstract

On June 6, 2002, in a televised address to the nation, President George W. Bush proposed what he termed the “most extensive reorganization of the federal government since the 1940s.”1 By the end of 2002, the Department of Homeland Security became a reality and is now the third largest in the executive branch behind that of Defense and Veterans Affairs. The new department employs around 170,000 federal workers with a $38 billion dollar budget, and inherited 22 existing federal agencies with missions dealing with homeland security issues.2

Keywords

Terrorist Attack Homeland Security Executive Order Coast Guard Transportation Security 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 5.
    See Mike Allen, “Ridge Faces Daunting Task in Homeland Defense,” Washington Post, 26 November 2002Google Scholar
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  4. A8. The White House, “Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan,” November 25, 2002Google Scholar
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    John Hart, The Presidential Branch: From Washington to Clinton, 2nd. ed, (Chatham, NJ: Chatham House Publishers, 1995)Google Scholar
  6. and Harold C. Relyea, “Homeland Security: The Concept and the Presidential Coordination Office—First Assessment,” Presidential Studies Quarterly, 32. no. 2 (June 2002), 397–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Elizabeth Becker and Elaine Sciolino, “A New Federal Office Opens Amid Concern That Its Head Won’t Have Enough Power,” New York Times, October 9, 2001, BllGoogle Scholar
  8. Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr., “Shoring Up America,” National Journal, October 20, 2001, 3242Google Scholar
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  13. Relyea, “Homeland Security: Department Organization and Management” Jason Vest, “Ridge’s Troubled Waters,” American Prospect. December 3, 10. Tom Ridge faced stiff bureaucratic resistance and resistance from Congressional committee and subcommittee chairs in January 2002, when he suggested the idea of combining border agencies (including Border Patrol, Coast Guard, and Customs Service) into a single federal agency (e.g., see Miller, “The Impossible Position of Tom Ridge”). This episode demonstrated that even with the president’s ear but without budget authority, the Homeland Security Adviser had only limited power to significantly change the system.Google Scholar
  14. 22.
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  15. Tom Zucco, “Red Orange Yellow Blue Green ALERT?” St. Petersburg Times, March 21, 2002, ID .Google Scholar
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    E.g., see Elizabeth Becker, “Bush Is Said to Consider A New Security Department,” New York Times, 12 April 2002Google Scholar
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    E.g., see Mike Allen, “Ridge Faces Daunting Task in Homeland Defense,” Washington Post, November 26, 2002, A17Google Scholar
  20. Philip Shenon, “Establishing New Agency is Expected to Take Years and Could Divert It From Mission,” New York Times, November 19, 2002, A14.Google Scholar
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    E.g., see Mike Allen and John Mintz, “Homeland Department May Take a Year to Take Shape,” Washington Post, November 21, 2002, A8. The White House, “Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan,” November 25, 2002, <http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/1 l/reorganization_plan.pdf> Shenon, “Establishing New Agency is Expected to Take Years and Could Divert It From Mission.”
  22. 38.
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  24. 39.
    E.g., see Ben Canada, “The Department of Homeland Security: State and Local Preparedness Issues,” The Library of Congress: Congressional Research Service, August 14, 2002, Order Code RL31490.Google Scholar
  25. 40.
    “Homeland Security: Efforts to Improve Information Sharing Need to be Strengthened,” August 2003; E.g., see GAO (United States General Accounting Office). “Homeland Security: Efforts to Improve Information Sharing Need to be Strengthened,” August 2003Google Scholar
  26. Warren B. Rudman, Richard A. Clarke, and Jamie F. Metzl, “Emergency Responders: Drastically Under funded, Dangerously Unprepared,” Council on Foreign Relations, June 29, 2003, <http://www.cfr.org/publication.php? id=6085#>
  27. 41.
    James Q. Wilson, Bureaucracy: What Government Agencies Do and Why They Do It (New York, NY: Basic Books, 1989).Google Scholar
  28. 42.
    E.g., see John Mintz and Dan Eggen, “Ashcroft, Ridge Settle Turf Battle,” Washington Post, May 23, 2003, A7 .Google Scholar
  29. 43.
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Copyright information

© Betty Glad and Chris J. Dolan 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • David B. Cohen
  • Alethia Cook

There are no affiliations available

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