Dreams pp 321-332 | Cite as

The New Neuropsychology of Sleep

Implications for Psychoanalysis
  • J. Allan Hobson


In his 1895 Project for a Scientific Psychology, Sigmund Freud clearly stated his goal: to integrate the workings of the mind with the workings of the brain. But in his day, too little neurobiology was known to make his goal attainable, and he tried instead to understand such fascinating normal phenomena as dreaming in exclusively psychodynamic terms. A century later, Freud’s brilliant but entirely speculative dream theory is in need of radical revision, if not complete overhaul, because dreams as well as other unusual states of consciousness can finally be approached from the solid foundation of modern neuroscience. In other words, the goals of Freud’s Project are at last within our grasp. Ironically, an obstacle to progress is the tenacious adherence of orthodox psychoanalysis to a theory that, even by the standards of its originator, is now clearly outmoded.


Positron Emission Tomography Study NREM Sleep Dream Content Sensory Side Complete Overhaul 
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© Kelly Bulkeley 2001

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  • J. Allan Hobson

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