Leclerc’s Mosaic: Historicism, Institutionalism, and Memory

  • Siba N. Grovogui
Part of the Culture and Religion in International Relations book series (CRIR)


In 1995, the American Public Broadcasting System (PBS) produced a month-long televison series commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of the end of World War II. The PBS series was one of many events that sought to recapture the high moments of the “great war.” According to PBS, these were inter alia the collapse of France; German invasion of Belgium; the march of Werhmacht toward the Low Countries; the Russian Front; the Stalin-CHitler Pact; the blitzkrieg or bombing of London; the Normandy landing; the Pacific Front; the fall of Germany; the liberation of death camp survivors; the division of Europe; and above all the selfless entry of the United States into war to defend democracy. Except for sequences on the loyalty of colonial troops to the Allied cause, the series characteristically omitted the role played by colonial populations. Africa was shown merely a theater for motorized battles opposing the ultimate victors to their Nazi and Fascist antagonists. Where it was mentioned, African participation was attributed to loyalty to the métropoles and/or compliance with metropolitan fiats. By a feat of visual effects, therefore, the series reduced the entire war to its American and European dimensions. Variations on this perspective are also commonsense in Europe. Related narratives pay little attention to the multiplicity of political symbols, motivations, ideas, and beliefs that drew other regions into that war.


Epistemic Community International Morality Global Politics French Colonial Transnational Network 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Edmund Husserl quoted in Dipesh Chakarbarty, Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), 29Google Scholar
  2. see also Edmund Husserl, The Crisis of European Sciences and Transcendental Philosophy, trans. David Carr (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1970), 281–285.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Johannes Fabian, Time and the Other: How Anthropology Constructs Its Object (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Edward W. Said, Orientalism (New York: Vintage Books, c. 1994).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Felix Gilbert, History: Politics or Culture (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990), 23.Google Scholar
  6. 7.
    Michel-Rolph Trouillot, Silencing the Past Power and the Production of History (Boston: Beacon Press, 1995).Google Scholar
  7. 9.
    Anthony Hopkins, The Future of the Imperial Past (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).Google Scholar
  8. James Mayall, ed., The New Interventionism, 1991–1994: United Nations Experience in Cambodia, former Yugoslavia, and Somalia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996)Google Scholar
  9. Margaret E. Keck and Kathryn Sikkink, Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998).Google Scholar
  10. 12.
    Frederick Cooper, “Networks, Moral Discourse, and History,” in Thomas M. Callaghy et al., eds., Intervention and Transnationalism in Africa (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 28.Google Scholar
  11. 13.
    See, for instance, Stephen Krasner, “Power Politics and Transnational Relations,” in Thomas Risse-Kappen, ed., Bringing Transnational Relations Back In: Non-State Actors, Domestic Structures, and International Institutions (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 257–279.Google Scholar
  12. 14.
    Such is particularly the case with Andreas Hasenclever et al., Theories of International Regimes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).Google Scholar
  13. 16.
    Micheline R. Ishay, for instance, has done an impressive rendition “internationalism” by looking at the persistence of Enlightenment-related idioms of reason and solidarity. She holds these to be the most compelling grounds of protest and imagination of political future at a time when these very ideas were contested in vast colonial expanses. See Micheline R. Ishay, Internationalism and Its Betrayal (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995).Google Scholar
  14. 17.
    Aihwa Ong, Flexible Citizenship: The Cultural Logics of Transnationality (Durham: Duke University Press, 1999), 1–26.Google Scholar
  15. 18.
    This group extends to theorists of transnational networks, international civil society, and social movements. See, Thomas Risse-Kappen, ed., Bringing Transnationalism Back In: Non-State Actors, Domestic Structures, and International Institutions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995)Google Scholar
  16. Peter M. Haas, ed., “Knowledge, Power, and International Policy Coordination,” International Organization, vol. 46, no. 1 (Winter 1992)Google Scholar
  17. Kathryn Sikkink, “Human rights, Principles Issue-Networks, and Sovereignty in Latin America,” International Organization, vol. 47, no. 3 (Summer 1993).Google Scholar
  18. 20.
    For an appreciation of the debate see David A. Baldwin, ed., Neorealism and Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993).Google Scholar
  19. 21.
    See, for instance, Robert L. Phillips and Duane L. Cady, Humanitarian Intervention: Just War vs. Pacifism (Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 1996)Google Scholar
  20. Gene M. Lyons and Michael Mastanduno, eds., Beyond Westphalia? Sovereignty and International Intervention (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1995) and “International intervention, state sovereignty and the future of international society,” International Social Science Journal, vol. 45 (1993), 517–532.Google Scholar
  21. 25.
    William E. Connolly, The Ethos of Pluralization (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995), 21.Google Scholar
  22. 26.
    See, Eric J. Hobsbawm, Nations and Nationalism Since 1780: Program, Myth, Reality, 2nd edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992) and The Age ofEmpire, 1875–1914 (New York: Vintage, 1989).Google Scholar
  23. 44.
    Francis Fukuyama, The End of History and the Last Man (New York: Perennial, 2002).Google Scholar
  24. 49.
    Mustapha Kamal Pasha and David L. Blaney, “Elusive Paradise: The Promise and Peril of Global Civil Society,” Alternatives, no. 23 (1998), 417–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 64.
    Pheng Cheah and Bruce Robbins, eds., Cosmopolitics: Thinking and Feeling Beyond the Nation (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, c. 1998).Google Scholar
  26. 68.
    R. B. J. Walker, Inside/Outside: International Relations as Political Theory (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 69.
    Jean Bodin, Les Six Livres de la République, Christiane Frémont, Marie-Dominique Couzinet, and Henri Rochais, eds. (Paris: Fayard, c. 1986).Google Scholar
  28. 71.
    Siba N. Grovogui, “International Morality and the African Condition,” European Journal of International Relations, vol. 8, no. 3 (2002), 315–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 73.
    Eric Williams, 1944; Walter Rodney, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa (Washington, DC: Howard University Press, 1981).Google Scholar
  30. 80.
    Catherine Akpo-Vaché, L’AOF et la Seconde Guerre Mondiale (Paris: Karthala, 1996), 13–26 and 95–146.Google Scholar
  31. 81.
    See, Jean-Pierre Bondi and Gilles Morin, Les Anti-Colonialistes (1881–1962) (Paris: Editions Robert Laffont, 1992), 207–226 and Serge Wolikow, Le Front Populaire en France (Paris: Editions Complexe, 1996), 169–206.Google Scholar
  32. 83.
    Ruth Schachter-Morgenthau, Le Multipartisme en Afrique de l’Ouest Francophone Jusqu’aux Independances (Paris: l’Harmattan, 1998), 16.Google Scholar
  33. 114.
    Martin Blumenson, “Politics and the Military in the Liberation of France,” Parameters (Summer 1998), 4–14.Google Scholar
  34. 118.
    See, for instance, Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre, Is Paris Burning? (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1965)Google Scholar
  35. 121.
    See, for instance, Benjamin Stora, Imaginaires de Guerre (Paris: Editions La Decouverte, 1997).Google Scholar
  36. 123.
    Aijaz Ahmad, In Theory: Classes, Nations, and Literatures (London: Verso, 1992), 1–42.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Siba N. Grovogui 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Siba N. Grovogui

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations