Various and Sundry Images of Hong Xiuquan

  • Masuda Wataru


On the matter of Ōshio’s alleged meeting with Zhou Yunshan (later, Feng Yunshan) in Nagasaki and their trip together to China, Ishizaki Tōgoku notes: The problem here is the identity of Mr. Zhou, said to be a Chinese merchant, with whom Ōshio and his son embarked on their journey. In the various works we have examined, I recall a work by Ōkura Nagatsune, entitled Kiyō ki [Account of Nagasaki], which mentions this.’ It is not clear what work this Kiyō ki refers to. I, for one, have never heard of such a work by ōkura, and after a brief examination of his writings, no work by this title comes to the fore. Nonetheless, Ishizaki quotes from it as follows:

Recently, a talented young Cantonese by the name of Zhou Yunshan came to Nagasaki. He is well-versed in both Dutch medical science and studies of the Yi jing (Classic of Changes). I gained considerably through a meeting with him, and if he were to wish to remain permanently on Japanese soil, I would make such a recommendation to the feudal lords. Last year Yunshan formed something called the Triads. He was arrested while spreading his [religious] message locally [in China] and by dressing up as a merchant escaped certain death. He now says that he has collected his books to take long-term refuge in Japan.


Triad Opium Defend Verse Glean 


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  1. 4.
    Hamberg: (Hong Kong: China Mail, 1854); also published serially in the North China Herald. The Chinese translation by Jian Youwen appears in Jian, Taiping tianguo zaji diyiji (Various Accounts of the Taipings, First Collection) (Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1935).Google Scholar
  2. 7.
    See Tao Chengzhang, ‘Jiaohui yuanliu kao’ (A Study of the Origins of [Triad] Religious Society), in Luo Ergang, ed., Tiandihui wenxian lu (Studies of Documents on the Triads) (Hong Kong: Shiyong shuju, 1942); (Shanghai: Zhengzhong shuju, 1943).Google Scholar

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© Joshua A. Fogel 2000

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  • Masuda Wataru

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