From the time of China’s defeat in the Opium War of 1840, Chinese progressives went through untold hardships in their quest for truth from the Western countries. Hong Xiuquan, Kang Youwei, Yan Fu, and Sun Zhongshan were representative of those who had looked to the West for truth before the Communist Party of China was born. Chinese who then sought progress would read any book containing the new knowledge from the West.
KeywordsMedical Text Chinese Text Chinese Translation Japanese Translation Early Qing Dynasty
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- 1.The person who entered the Japanese reading punctuation in the text is not made explicit, but it was Nishi Amane (1828–97) according to Ōtsuki Nyoden, Nihon Yōgaku kennen shi (Chronological History of Western Learning in Japan), with additional annotations by Sato Eishichi (Tokyo: Kinseisha, 1965).Google Scholar