Advertisement

Arms Transfers and Regional Security

  • William J. Durch

Abstract

Only for the largest powers—and maybe only for the United States—is national security globally determined. For nine-tenths of humanity it is largely locally determined and focused. The rhythms of the larger international system did strongly influence the security of some developing states during the Cold War, as the opposing sides scrambled to block one another and back developing country clients. The United States paid a heavy price trying to keep South Vietnam out of the communist fold. The Soviet Union paid a similar price in Afghanistan to keep it in. Neither was successful. The United States used guns as well as money to sustain larcenous rulers like the late Mobutu Sese Seko of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of Congo) because they kept the lid on their countries and kept Soviet influence to a minimum. Mobutu and other autocratic rulers sitting atop unstable states welcomed such largesse and parlayed threats from one side and its clients into arms from the other side. The whipsaw was often effective for the ruling regime but did little to improve basic governance or the lot of the average citizen.

Keywords

Internal Conflict Regional Security Force Ratio Military Spending North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography

  1. Allison, Graham T. “Questions About the Arms Race: Who’s Racing Whom? A Bureaucratic Perspective.” In Contrasting Approaches to Strategic Arms Control. Edited by Robert L. Pfaltzgraff, Jr. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1974.Google Scholar
  2. Ayoob, Mohammed. The Third World Security Predicament: State Making, Regional Conflict, and the International System. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1995.Google Scholar
  3. Azar, Edward, and Moon Chung-In. “Legitimacy, Integration, and Policy Capacity.” In National Security in the Third World. Edited by Edward Azar and Moon Chung-In. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1988.Google Scholar
  4. Biddle, Stephen D. The Determinants of Offensiveness and Defensiveness in Conventional Land Warfare. Ph.D dissertation, Harvard University, May 1992.Google Scholar
  5. —. “Recent Trends in Armor, Infantry, and Artillery Technology: Developments and Implications.” In The Diffusion of Advanced Weaponry: Technologies, Regional Implications, and Responses. Edited by W. Thomas Wander, Eric H. Arnett, and Paul Bracken. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1994.Google Scholar
  6. Blechman, Barry M., and Tamara Wittes. “Defining Moment: The Threat and Use of Force in American Foreign Policy Since 1989.” Foreign Policy Project Occasional Paper 6. Washington, D.C.: The Henry L. Stimson Center and the Overseas Development Council, May 1998.Google Scholar
  7. Brzoska, Michael, and Frederic Pearson. Arms and Warfare: Escalation, Deescalation, and Negotiation. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1994.Google Scholar
  8. Buzan, Barry. People, States, and Fear, 2nd ed. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1991.Google Scholar
  9. Center for Defence and International Security Studies. “Missile Threats and Responses.” Lancaster University, United Kingdom. Internet: http://www.cdiss.org/tempor1.htm. Accessed September 10, 1999.Google Scholar
  10. Cohen, Lenard J. Broken Bonds: The Disintegration of Yugoslavia. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1993.Google Scholar
  11. Colton, Joel, and R. R. Palmer. A History of the Modern World, 8th ed. New York: Knopf, 1995.Google Scholar
  12. Cook, Thomas D., and Donald T. Campbell. Quasi-Experimentation: Design and Analysis Issues for Field Settings. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1979.Google Scholar
  13. Davis, James W., Jr., et al. “Correspondence: Taking Offense at Offense-Defense Theory.” International Security 23:3 (Winter 1998–1999): 179–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Diehl, Paul F. “Armaments Without War: An Analysis of Some Underlying Effects.” Journal of Peace Research 22 (1985): 249–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. —, and Jean Kingston. “Messenger or Message? Military Buildups and the Initiation of Conflict.” Journal of Politics 49 (1987): 801–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Downs, George W. “Arms Races and War” In Behavior, Society, and Nuclear War. Vol. 2. Edited by Philip E. Tetlock, et al. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.Google Scholar
  17. —, David M. Rocke, and Randolph M. Siverson. “Arms Races and Cooperation” World Politics 38 (1985): 118–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Draper, N. R., and H. Smith. Applied Regression Analysis. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1966.Google Scholar
  19. Durch, William J., and James A. Schear. “Faultlines: UN Operations in the Former Yugoslavia.” In UN Peacekeeping, American Policy, and the Uncivil Wars of the 1990s. Edited by William J. Durch. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996.Google Scholar
  20. Etcheson, Craig. Arms Race Theory, Strategy and Structure of Behavior. New York: Greenwood Press, 1989.Google Scholar
  21. Flanagan, Stephen J. “Nonprovocative and Civilian-Based Defenses” In Fateful Visions: Avoiding Nuclear Catastrophe. Edited by Joseph S. Nye, Jr., Graham T. Allison, and Albert Carnesale. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger Publ. Co., 1988.Google Scholar
  22. Freedman, Lawrence. The Evolution of Nuclear Strategy. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gaddis, John Lewis. “The Long Peace: Elements of Stability in the Post-War International System.” International Security (Spring 1986): 99–142.Google Scholar
  24. Glaser, Charles L. Analyzing Strategic Nuclear Policy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. —, and Chaim Kaufmann. “What is the Offense-Defense Balance and Can We Measure It?” International Security 22:4 (Spring 1998): 44–82.Google Scholar
  26. Goodpaster, Gen. Andrew, et al. An American Legacy: Building a Nuclear-Free World. Final report of the steering committee, Project on Eliminating Weapons of Mass Destruction. Washington, D.C.: The Henry L. Stimson Center, 1997.Google Scholar
  27. Graham, Norman A. “The Quest for Security and Development” In Seeking Security and Development Edited by Norman A. Graham. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1994.Google Scholar
  28. Gray, Colin S. “The Arms Race Phenomenon” World Politics (October 1971): 39–59.Google Scholar
  29. —. “The Urge to Compete: Rationales for Arms Racing” World Politics (January 1974): 207–33.Google Scholar
  30. Green, Philip. Deadly Logic: The Theory of Nuclear Deterrence. New York: Schocken Books, 1966.Google Scholar
  31. Greenfeld, Liah. Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1992.Google Scholar
  32. Hall, Brian. The Impossible Country: A Journey through the Last Days of Yugoslavia. Boston: David R. Godine Publisher, 1994.Google Scholar
  33. Hardin, Russell. One for All: The Logic of Group Conflict. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995.Google Scholar
  34. Haseman, John. “Indonesia cuts back on spending as crisis bites.” Jane’s Defence Weekly (January 21, 1998): 6.Google Scholar
  35. Hiro, Dilip. The Longest War: The Iran-Iraq Military Conflict. New York: Routledge, 1991.Google Scholar
  36. Holsti, K. J. “International Theory and Domestic War in the Third World: The Limits of Relevance.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Toronto, Canada, February 1997.Google Scholar
  37. Huntington, Samuel P. “Arms Races, Prerequisites and Results” Public Policy 8 (1958).Google Scholar
  38. International Crisis Group. Kosovo Spring. March 20, 1998. Internet: http://www.intl-crisisgroup.org. Click Publications, South Balkans, scroll to the title. Accessed April 1, 1999.
  39. Jervis, Robert. Perception and Misperception in World Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  40. Job, Brian. “The Insecurity Dilemma: National, Regime, and State Securities in the Third World.” In The Insecurity Dilemma, National Security of Third World States. Edited by Brian Job. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1992.Google Scholar
  41. Johnson, John J. “The Latin American Military as a Politically Competing Group in a Transitional Society.” In The Role of the Military in Underdeveloped Countries. Edited by John J. Johnson. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962.Google Scholar
  42. Karniol, Robert. “South Korea postpones programmes amid crisis” Jane’s Defence Weekly (January 21, 1998): 14.Google Scholar
  43. Kinsella, David. “Arms Transfers, Dependence, and Regional Stability: Isolated Effects or General Patterns?” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Washington, D.C., February 16–21, 1999.Google Scholar
  44. Levy, Jack S. “The Offensive/Defensive Balance of Military Technology: A Theoretical and Historical Analysis.” International Studies Quarterly 28 (1984).Google Scholar
  45. Lewis, Paul. “Cash Crunch: Arms buying has come to a halt in the troubled Southeast Asian economies.” Flight International (January 21–27, 1998): 60–62.Google Scholar
  46. Lin, Herbert. New Technologies and the ABM Treaty. Washington: Pergamon-Brassey’s, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mazaar, Michael J. Nuclear Weapons in a Transformed World: The Challenge of Virtual Nuclear Arsenals. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997.Google Scholar
  48. Mearsheimer, John J. Conventional Deterrence. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1983.Google Scholar
  49. Mullins, A. F. Born Arming: Development and Military Power in New States. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1987.Google Scholar
  50. Navias, Martin S., and E. R. Hooton. Tanker Wars: The Assault on Merchant Shipping during the Iran-Iraq Conflict, 1980–1988. New York: I. B. Tauris, 1996.Google Scholar
  51. Nutter, John Jacob. “An Analysis of Threat.” In Seeking Security and Development: The Impact of Military Spending and Arms Transfers. Edited by Norman A. Graham. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1994.Google Scholar
  52. Opall, Barbara. “Thai F-18s Cost U.S. Navy” Defense News, March 16–22, 1998, 1.Google Scholar
  53. Pace, Scott, et al. The Global Positioning System: Assessing National Policies. MR-614-OSTP. Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND, 1995.Google Scholar
  54. —, et al. A Policy Direction for the Global Positioning System: Balancing National Security and Commercial Interests. RAND Research Brief 1501. Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND, 1995.Google Scholar
  55. Payne, James L. Why Nations Arm. New York: Basil Blackwell, 1989.Google Scholar
  56. Posen, Barry R. “The Security Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict.” In Ethnic Conflict and International Security. Edited by Michael E. Brown. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.Google Scholar
  57. Riggs, Robert E., and Jack C. Plano. The United Nations: International Organization and World Politics, 2nd ed. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1994.Google Scholar
  58. Roberts, Brad, ed. Biological Weapons: Weapons of the Future? Washington, D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1993.Google Scholar
  59. Roche, James. “Proliferation of Tactical Aircraft and Ballistic and Cruise Missiles in the Developing World.” In The Diffusion of Advanced Weaponry: Technologies, Regional Implications, and Responses. Edited by W. Thomas Wander, Eric H. Arnett, and Paul Bracken. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1994.Google Scholar
  60. Sagan, Scott D., and Kenneth N. Waltz. The Spread of Nuclear Weapons: A Debate. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1995.Google Scholar
  61. Schelling, Thomas C. The Strategy of Conflict. New York: Oxford University Press, 1960.Google Scholar
  62. Segal, David. “The Iran-Iraq War: A Military Analysis” Foreign Affairs 66 (Summer 1988).Google Scholar
  63. Smithson, Amy E. Chemical Weapons Disarmament in Russia: Problems and Prospects. Report no. 17. Washington, D.C.: The Henry L. Stimson Center, 1995.Google Scholar
  64. —. Separating Fact from Fiction: The Australia Group and the Chemical Weapons Convention. Occasional paper no. 34. Washington, D.C.: The Henry L. Stimson Center, 1997.Google Scholar
  65. —. Biological Weapons Proliferation: Reasons for Concern, Courses of Action. Report no. 24. Washington, D.C.: The Henry L. Stimson Center, 1998.Google Scholar
  66. Spector, Leonard S., and Mark G. McDonough with Even S. Medeiros. Tracking Nuclear Proliferation: A Guide in Maps and Charts, 1995. Washington, D.C.: The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1995.Google Scholar
  67. Tilly, Charles. “Western State-making and Theories of Political Transformation.” In Formation of National States in Western Europe. Edited by Charles Tilly. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  68. United Nations Development Program. Human Development Report, 1996. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.Google Scholar
  69. U.S. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment. Global Arms Trade. Washington, D.C.: GPO, June 1991.Google Scholar
  70. Van Evera, Stephen. “Offense, Defense, and the Causes of War.” International Security 22 (Spring 1998): 5–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. von Bulow, Andreas. “Defensive Entanglement: An Alternative Strategy for NATO.” In The Conventional Defense of Europe. Edited by Andrew J. Pierre. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1988.Google Scholar
  72. Walt, Stephen M. The Origins of Alliances. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1987.Google Scholar
  73. Woodward, Susan. Balkan Tragedy: Chaos and Dissolution After the Cold War. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1994.Google Scholar
  74. Zartman, I. William, ed. Collapsed States: The Disintegration and Restoration of Legitimate Authority. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1995.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Century Foundation, Inc. 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • William J. Durch

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations