The Economics of Secession: Empirical Evidence (Part I)

  • Milica Zarkovic Bookman


Chapters 3 and 4 contain empirical evidence pertaining to various indicators of the economic basis of secession in the 37 seceding regions under study. Several points warrant explanation. First, the regions are grouped geographically rather than by income to retain continuity with chapter 1 and also because income statistics are not available for all regions. Second, despite the wide gaps in the primary and secondary sources available for some regions, an effort was made to piece together the existing evidence in order to enable a comparison of regions, albeit sometimes limited. The variation in data availability and collection practices in the various countries is significant, so that not all regions are included in every analysis. Third, given the organization of the book, the two empirical chapters are self-contained and may be skipped with no loss of comprehension. Indeed, the theoretical propositions of the link between economic variables and secession during the reevaluation, redefinition, and reequilibration phases of secession are explored in chapters 5, 6, and 7.


National Average Copper Mine Relative Income State Income Regional Income 
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  1. 3.
    There are no statistics on the industrial classification of the labor force in Bougainville. As a result, the portion of the indigenous population that works in the organized sector for wages is used as a proxy, and this has been estimated to be 8.2 percent of the population. Moreover, according to government statistics, the Bougainville mines employ 4 percent of the total wage labor force of the country (Azeem Amarshi, Kenneth Good, and Rex Mortimer, Development and Dependency: The Political Economy of Papua New Guinea, Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1979, pp. 133–4).Google Scholar
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    According to Griffin, Bougainvillians stand apart from the mainland insofar as they are significantly more educated than the average population, a fact attributed to the proliferation of missionary schools in the region. This has contributed to the positioning of Bougainvillians in all parts of the nation as well as in the important positions in administration, the army, and the police force (James Griffin, “Movements for Separation and Secession,” in Anthony Clunies Ross and John Langmore, eds., Alternative Strategies for Papua New Guinea, Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1973, p. 117).Google Scholar
  3. 9.
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  37. 107.
    International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, The Economic Development of Nigeria, Lagos: Federal Government Printer, 1954, p. 398. This indicates that the income per capita of the eastern region, which at the time included South Cameroons also, was at the national average. That persisted until the exclusion of the Cameroons and the increase in the importance of petroleum.Google Scholar
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© Milica Zarkovic Bookman 1992

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  • Milica Zarkovic Bookman

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