Degrees of Difficulty: The Effect of Israeli Policy Shifts on Syrian Peace Decisions

  • Allison Astorino-Courtois
  • Brittani Trusty
Part of the Advances in Foreign Policy Analysis book series (AFPA)


The balance of decision literature specific to foreign policy has focused on decision making in the context of international crises and the outbreak of war (e.g., Holsti and George 1975; Brecher 1980; Smith 1984; Maoz and Astorino 1992; Haney 1994).Together these works provide both empirical and qualitative evidence that the situational factors associated with immediately threatening situations (e.g., elevated stress, time pressure, decision uncertainty, etc.) induce simplified and nonnormative decision making.To date, however, foreign policy decision making in the absence of crisis-related factors has gone largely unexplored.


Syria Turkey Expense Peris Egypt 


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© Alex Mintz 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Allison Astorino-Courtois
  • Brittani Trusty

There are no affiliations available

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