Pakistan, Direct Militarization, and the 1965 War

  • Julian Schofield
Part of the Initiatives in Strategic Studies: Issues and Policies book series (ISSIP)


The 1965 Indo-Pakistan War escalated out of infiltration from Pakistan (of 7,000 insurgents) into Indian-occupied Kashmir on August 5,1965. Pakistan not only failed to evoke the planned uprising in Kashmir, but provoked a surprising Indian counterattack, and unexpected abandonment by the United States and China. Pakistan’s decision to wage war was based on a desperate strategy; its miscalculation isolated Pakistan internationally in a war against a larger rival, and ultimately facilitated India’s dismemberment of Pakistan in 1971. While there are many reasons for the 1965 War, militarization was the decisive cause because it was the lens through which all incentives to risk war were interpreted by the Pakistani leadership. Pakistan, of the all cases presented in this book, is the purest example of a military regime, and therefore demonstrates the strongest orientative and configurative biases of militarization.


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© Julian Schofield 2007

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  • Julian Schofield

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