Massacres North and South
From almost the first conflicts in North America, colonists resorted to destroying Indian crops and villages as the surest way to defeat Indians. Hundreds of Pequots died when the Puritans burned their village on the Mystic River in Connecticut in 1637; French expeditions into Mohawk country in the 1660s targeted Mohawk villages for destruction, and British troops carried fire and sword to Cherokee towns in 1760. During the American Revolution, patriot troops launched recurrent assaults on Cherokee and Shawnee villages, and General John Sullivan’s expedition in 1779 rampaged through Iroquois country burning crops, cutting down orchards, and burning forty towns.
KeywordsBurning Smoke Hunt Defend Hyde
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- 1.Stan Hoig, The Sand Creek Massacre (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1961), includes a discussion of the escalating hostilities.Google Scholar
- See also Donald J. Berthrong, The Southern Cheyennes (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963), chaps. 7–9. Carson’s testimony is in “The Chivington Massacre,” 39th Congress, 2d Session, Senate Report No. 156, appendix, 96–98.Google Scholar
- 2.Savoie Lottinville, ed., Life of George Bent, Written from His Letters by George E. Hyde (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1968), 152.Google Scholar
- 3.James P. Ronda, Lewis and Clark among the Indians (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984), 241–44.Google Scholar
- 4.For more information see John C. Ewers, The Blackfeet: Raiders on the Northwestern Plains (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1958), chap. 14;Google Scholar
- James Willard Schultz, Blackfeet and Buffalo: Memories of Life among the Indians (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1962), 298–99. These events also feature prominently in James Welch’s novel Fools Crow (New York: Penguin, 1987).Google Scholar