Some Proposals

  • Christopher J. Lucas


The claim that people aspiring to become elementary or secondary classroom instructors need formal preparation for their work, it is abundantly apparent, has yet to win universal acceptance at the close of the twentieth century. Every so often, an editorialist or a self-styled critic brandishing a book with an inflammatory title such as The Collapse of American Education, How Our Schools Are Failing and Why the Crisis Is Worsening will attract wide attention by rehearsing the claim that teacher education is bankrupt. Instructional acts are natural occurrences in the repertoire of human behaviors, runs the argument; and there were teachers long before someone seized upon the curious notion they needed to be trained in order to exercise abilities they—and practically everyone else—already possess.1


Teacher Education Prospective Teacher Pedagogical Content Knowledge Teacher Training Teacher Education Program 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Frank B. Murray, “Beyond Natural Teaching: The Case For Professional Education,” in Frank B. Murray, ed., The Teacher Educator’s Handbook: Building a Knowledge Base for the Preparation of Teachers (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1996), p.3.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Reported in the San Francisco Chronicle (July 15, 1986), p. 12; and cited in Pamela L. Grossman, “Learning to Teach without Teacher Education,” Teachers College Record 91 (Winter 1989): 191.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jack L. Nelson, Stuart B. Palonsky, and Kenneth Carlson, Critical Issues in Education (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990), p. 233.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Note the helpful discussion offered by Edmund W. Gordon, “Culture and the Sciences of Pedagogy,” Teachers College Record 97 (Fall 1995): 32–46; and by Robert Donmoyer, “The Concept of a Knowledge Base,” in Murray, pp. 92–119. See also M. C. Reynolds, ed., Knowledge Base for the Beginning Teacher (Elmsford, N.Y.: Pergamon Press, 1989).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    William D. Schaefer, Education Without Compromise, From Chaos to Coherence in Higher Education (San Francisco, Cal.: Jossey-Bass, 1990), p. 10.Google Scholar
  6. 10.
    B. O. Smith, A Design for a School of Pedagogy (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Office of Education, 1980).Google Scholar
  7. 11.
    See Grossman, pp. 191–208; Carol Strawderman and Pamela Lindsey, “Keeping Up with the Times: Reform in Teacher Education,” Journal of Teacher Education 46 (March–April 1995): 95–100; and Ellen C. Lagemann, “Reinventing the Teacher’s Role,” Teachers College Record 95 (Fall 1993): 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 16.
    Lee S. Shulman, “Those Who Understand: Knowledge Growth in Teaching,” Educational Researcher 15 (February 1986): 9; and Schulman, “Knowledge and Teaching: Foundations of the New Reform,” Harvard Educational Review 57 (February 1987): 1–22. Note also the discussion in Kathryn F. Cochran, James A. DeRuiter, and Richard A. King, “Pedagogical Content Knowledge: An Integrative Model for Teacher Preparation,” Journal of Teacher Education 44 (September–October 1993): 263–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 18.
    Note, for example, the scope of content coverage supplied in Anita E. Woolfolk, Educational Psychology, 6th ed. (Needham Heights, Mass.: Allyn and Bacon, 1995); Thomas L. Good and Jere Brophy, Contemporary Educational Psychology, 5th ed. (White Plains, N.Y.: Longman, 1995); and Ernest T. Goetz, Patricia A. Alexander, and Michael J. Ash, Educational Psychology, A Classroom Perspective (New York: Macmillan, 1992), among many others.Google Scholar
  10. 19.
    See Eiden R. Barrett and Susan Davis, “Perceptions of Beginning Teachers’ Inservice Needs in Classroom Management,” Teacher Education and Practice 11 (Spring/Summer 1995): pp. 22–27. Consult also Catherine H. Randolph and Carolyn M. Evertson, “Images of Management for Learner-Centered Classrooms,” Action in Teacher Education 16 (Spring, 1994): 55–63Google Scholar
  11. 20.
    Cameron White, “Making Classroom Management Approaches in Teacher Education Relevant,” Teacher Education and Practice 11 (Spring/Summer 1995): 16. Note the useful discussion in Carol S. Weinstein et al., “Protector or Prison Guard? Using Metaphors and Media to Explore Student Teachers’ Thinking about Classroom Management,” Action in Teacher Education 16 (Spring 1994): 41–54; H. and in James McLaughlin, “From Negation to Negotiation: Moving Away from the Management Metaphor,” Action in Teacher Education 16 (Spring 1994): 75–84.Google Scholar
  12. 21.
    An example of a useful resource for the curricular portion of this instructional area is George J. Posner and Alan N. Rudnitsky, Course Design: A Guide to Curriculum Development for Teachers, 3rd ed. (New York: Longman, 1986). See also Ellen L. Kronowitz, Beyond Student Teaching (New York: Longman, 1992).Google Scholar
  13. 22.
    Adapted in part from Council for Exceptional Children, CEC Standards for Professional Practice (Reston, Va.: Council for Exceptional Children, 1994), pp. 2–5, 7–13; and from Council for Exceptional Children, CEC Policy Manual (Reston, Va.: Council for Exceptional Children, 1993), Section 3, Part 2, pp. 4–7.Google Scholar
  14. 23.
    See Robert Heinich, Michael Molenda, and James D. Russell, Instructional Media and the New Technologies of Instruction, 5th ed. (New York: Macmillan, 1996).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Christopher J. Lucas 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher J. Lucas

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations