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Accreditation and Certification Standards

  • Christopher J. Lucas

Abstract

Authority for teacher licensure and certification by specialty areas rests ultimately with the 50 separate states. State education agencies, variously constituted and designated by legislative action, bear statutory responsibility for defining minimal requirements for entry into teaching. Directly or indirectly, virtually all state regulations go further in establishing basic criteria or standards to which teachers’ preparatory programs must conform.1 Requirements are apt to vary considerably from state to state, differing from one another both in terms of how they are organized and according to their specific provisions.2

Keywords

Prospective Teacher Teacher Preparation Teacher Candidate Teacher Preparation Program Certification Standard 
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Notes

  1. 1.
    Refer to David L. Clark and Robert F. McNergney, “Governance of Teacher Education,” in Robert Houston et al., eds., Handbook of Research on Teacher Education (New York: Macmillan, 1990), pp. 101–118.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Descriptive data on state certification standards are drawn from John Tryneski, ed., Requirements for Certification of Teachers, Counselors, Librarians, Administrators, 60th ed., 1995–96 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995), as revised and updated by reference to documents supplied by each of the 50 states.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Compare the outlines supplied in Tryneski with the profiles given in Arthur E. Wise and Linda Darling-Hammond, Licensing Teachers: Design for a Teaching Profession (Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, 1987). Relevant discussions of state rules and regulations appear in Lawrence M. Rudner and Thomas E. Eissenberg, State Testing of Teachers: The 1989 Report (Washington, D.C.: American Institutes for Research, 1989); in Leonard Kaplan, “Teacher Certification: Collaborative Reform,” Educational Forum 58 (Winter 1994): 168–172; in Robert A. Roth and Chris Pipho, “Teacher Education Standards,” in Houston et al., eds., pp. 119–135; and in Association of Teacher Educators Commission on Quality Standards and Enhancement of Teacher Education, Mission Statement (Reston, Va.: Association of Teacher Educators, 1993).Google Scholar
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    See Arthur E. Wise, “The Coming Revolution in Teacher Licensure: Redefining Teacher Preparation,” Action in Teacher Education 16 (Summer 1994): 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Note the commentary in Richard J. Murnane, “The Case for Performance-Based Licensing,” Phi Delta Kappan 73 (October 1991): 137.Google Scholar
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    Roth and Pipho, pp. 120–121. See Carolyn M. Evertson, Willis D. Hawley, and Marilyn Zlotnik, “Making a Difference in Educational Quality Through Teacher Education,” Journal of Teacher Education 36 (May–June 1985): 2–12; Willis Hawley, Directions of Teacher Education in the United States (Paris: Organization for Economic and Community Development, 1989); and Hawley, Notes on the Redesign of Teacher Education (Denver, Col.: Education Commission of the States, 1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    The specific context for his remarks involved issues having to do with relations between NCATE and the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (AACTE). See Gary D. Fenstermacher, “Controlling Quality and Creating Community: Separate Purposes for Separate Organizations,” Journal of Teacher Education 45 (November–December 1994): 329–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Consult Timothy M. Stinnett, “The Accreditation of Institutions for Teacher Preparation.” Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Texas, Austin, 1951); George R. Overby, “A Critical Review of Selected Issues Involved in the Establishment and Functioning of the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education from Its Origin Through 1965.” Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Florida State University, 1966; John R. Mayor and Willis G. Swartz, Accreditation in Teacher Education: Its Influence on Higher Education (Washington, D.C.: National Commission on Accrediting, 1965); Chris W. Wheeler, NCATE: Does It Matter? (East Lansing, Mich.: Institute for Research on Teaching, Michigan State University, 1980); and Richard Roames, “Accreditation in Teacher Education: A History of the Development of Standards Utilized by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education.” Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Akron, 1987.Google Scholar
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    See Benjamin W. Frazer et al., “Establishment and Growth of Normal Schools and Departments in Colleges and Universities from 1839 to 1865,” National Survey of the Education of Teachers, Vol. 5 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, Office of Education Bulletin 1933, No. 10, 1935), Chapter 2, pp. 10–23.Google Scholar
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    National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, Standards, Procedures, and Policies for the Accreditation of Professional Education Units (Washington, D.C.: NCATE, 1995), pp. 1, 3. See also National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, Teacher Preparation, A Guide to Colleges and Universities, 1994–95 (Washington, D.C.: NCATE, 1994–95).Google Scholar
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    Figures cited are taken from an NCATE fact sheet derived from statistics supplied in National Association of State Directors of Teacher Education and Certification, Manual on Certification, 1994–1995 (Washington, D.C.: NASDTEC, 1994).Google Scholar
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    Examples include National Science Teachers Association, NSTA Standards for Science Teacher Preparation (Arlington, Va.: National Science Teachers Association, 1992); National Academy of Early Childhood Programs, Accreditation Criteria and Procedures of the National Academy of Early Childhood Programs (Washington, D.C.: Washington, D.C.: NAEYC, n.d.); and Association for Childhood Education International, Elementary Education Curriculum Folio Guidelines for the NCATE Review Process, Basic Preparation (Wheaton, Md.: ACEI, n.d.).Google Scholar
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    National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, Toward High and Rigorous Standards for the Teaching Profession: Initial Policies and Perspectives of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (Detroit, Mich.: National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, 1989).Google Scholar
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    Ibid., pp. 2, 5, 6.Google Scholar
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    Ibid., pp. 13–14.Google Scholar
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    American Federation of Teachers, “Creating a Profession of Teaching: The Role of National Board Certification,” American Educator 14 (Summer 1990): 8–21, 40–45.Google Scholar
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    M. Jean Miller and Linda Darling-Hammond, Model Standards for Beginning Teacher Licensing and Development: A Resource for State Dialogue (Washington, D.C.: Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium/Council of Chief State School Officers, n.d.), p. 3.Google Scholar
  24. 33.
    Ibid., p. 5.Google Scholar
  25. 34.
    Refer to Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium, Next Steps: Moving Toward Performance-Based Licensing in Teaching (Washington, D.C.: Council of Chief State School Officers, 1994); and Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium, Assessment Development for Teacher Licensing: The Portfolio Project (Washington, D.C.: Council of Chief State School Officers, 1994).Google Scholar
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    National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, An Introduction to the New Professional Teacher Project (Washington, D.C.: NCATE, n.d.), p. 1.Google Scholar
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    National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, A Vision of the Future: The New Professional Teacher Project (Washington, D.C.: NCATE, n.d.), p. 1.Google Scholar
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    Ibid., p. 1–2.Google Scholar
  29. 39.
    Ibid., pp. 1–2.Google Scholar
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    National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, Teacher Preparation: A Continuum, The New Professional Teacher Project (Washington, D.C.: NCATE, n.d.), pp. 1–2, See Arthur E. Wise, “Professionalization and Standards: A Unified System of Quality Assurance,” Education Week (June 1, 1994): 48; and Arthur E. Wise and Jane Leibbrand, “Accreditation and the Creation of a Profession of Teaching,” Phi Delta Kappan 75 (October 1993): 133–157.Google Scholar
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    See Gary D. Fenstermacher, “The Knower and the Known: The Nature of Knowledge in Research on Teaching,” in Linda Darling-Hammond, ed., Review of Research in Education 20 (1994): 3–56; D. Jean Clandinin et al., Learning to Teach, Teaching to Learn (New York: Teachers College Press, 1993); Freema L. Elbaz, “Research on Teacher’s Knowledge: The Evolution of a Discourse,” Journal of Curriculum Studies 23 (January–February 1991): 1–19; D. A. Schön, The Reflective Turn: Case Studies in and on Educational Practice (New York: Teachers College Press, 1991).Google Scholar
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    See John Goodlad et al., The Moral Dimensions of Teaching (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1990); Hugh Sockett, The Moral Base for Teacher Professionalism (New York: Teachers College Press, 1993); and Kenneth A. Strike and P. Lance Ternasky, eds., Ethics for Professionals in Education (New York: Teachers College Press, 1993).Google Scholar
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    David A. Labaree, “Power, Knowledge, and the Rationalization of Teaching: A Genealogy of the Movement to Professionalize Teaching,” Harvard Educational Review 62 (1992): 148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Ibid., p. 149; and see M. Bruce King, “Locking Ourselves In: National Standards for the Teaching Profession,” Teaching and Teacher Education 10 (1994): 95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Office of Teacher Education and Certification, Guiding and Assessing Teacher Effectiveness: A Handbook for Kentucky Internship Program Participants (Lexington, Ky.: Office of Teacher Education and Certification, Education Professional Standards Board, June, 1995), p. 89.Google Scholar
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    Baird W. Whitlock, Educational Myths I Have Known and Loved (New York: Schocken Books, 1986), p. 113.Google Scholar
  37. 62.
    Eva C. Galambos, Teacher Preparation: The Anatomy of a College Degree (Atlanta, Ga.: Southern Regional Education Board, 1985), 13–14, 21.Google Scholar
  38. 63.
    Ibid., pp. 23, 29.Google Scholar
  39. 64.
    Frederic Mitchell and Michael Schwinden, Profiles of the Education of Teachers (Flagstaff, Ariz.: Northern Arizona State University, 1984), p. 4.Google Scholar
  40. 65.
    Cited in Thomas Toch, In the Name of Excellence, The Struggle to Reform the Nation’s Schools, Why It’s Failing, and What Should Be Done (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991), p. 294.Google Scholar
  41. 66.
    Oklahoma State Department of Education, Teacher Education and Certification, Guidelines and Procedures Handbook (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma State Department of Education, 1995), p. 22.Google Scholar
  42. 67.
    Kansas State Board of Education, Certification and Teacher Education Regulations (Topeka: Certification Section, Kansas State Board of Education, 1995), p. 33.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Christopher J. Lucas 1999

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  • Christopher J. Lucas

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