The Second Crusade and the Redefinition of Ecclesia, Christianitas and Papal Coercive Power
Scholars studying the crusades have underemphasized the far-reaching changes that took place in the papacy as a result of the crusading movement in the years 1095–1147. It has often been suggested that the First Crusade represented a papal triumph.1 However, historians have neglected to analyze the changes that occurred in the concepts of Ecclesia and Christianitas because of that crusade. Theretofore, principles of the Gregorian Reform movement had been applied to the clergy and to the monarchs. But with the First Crusade, these principles were extended further, in a conscious and coherent fashion, to the laity at large, and more specifically to members of the knighthood. Historians have also failed to examine the differences, as well as the links and developments, between the First and Second Crusades. The Second Crusade was institutionalized and juristically defined to a much greater extent than was the First, due to the far-reaching changes that took place within the Church as a juridical institution during the first half of the twelfth century. There was also a development in the concept of the coercive power of the papacy.2 Evidence for such changes in papal power can be found in the writings of both Gratian and Bernard of Clairvaux.
KeywordsTwelfth Century Reform Movement Coercive Power Eleventh Century Coherent Fashion
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