Toward Perpetual Peace

  • Immanuel Kant


A condition of peace among men living near one another is not a state of nature (status naturalis), which is much rather a condition of war, that is, it involves the constant threat of an outbreak of hostilities even if this does not always occur. A condition of peace must therefore be established; for suspension of hostilities is not yet assurance of peace, and unless such assurance is afforded one neighbor by another (as can happen only in a lawful condition), the former, who has called upon the latter for it, can treat him as an enemy.1


Definitive Article Sole Constitution Original Contract Republican Constitution Supreme Power 
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© Dimitrios Karmis and Wayne Norman 2005

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  • Immanuel Kant

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