Lynching stories and memories helped weave the color line through Grant County’s fabric to the end of the twentieth century. There was every reason to believe that W. E. B. Du Bois had been correct in predicting in 1903 that the color line would be the problem of the century. By 2000 the line was certainly more fluid and more ambiguous than at the century’s beginning. Some would still see a glass half empty, a color line still too sharp, still too tragic; others would see a glass more than half full, a line weakening to faintness as this ordinary place moved toward fulfilling America’s ideals. Few could deny that times had changed.
KeywordsSwimming Pool Color Line Black Worker National Office Police Brutality
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.William F. Munn, Sue Bratton, Terry Lakes, eds., Rough Times: Oral Histories Collected by Students in Advanced Placement US History and Advanced Placement English at Marion High School, Marion, Indiana, 1997–1998 (Marion, 1999), 21, 42, 79–80, 110, 114, 120, 124.Google Scholar
- 4.For the Beech settlement, see Stephen A. Vincent, Southern Seed, Northern Soil: African-American Farm Communities in the Midwest, 1765–1900 (Bloomington, Ind., 1999).Google Scholar
- 5.Steve Bunish, The Golden Age of Marion (n.p., 1989), 88.Google Scholar
- 7.Terry Pluto, Tall Tales: The Glory Years of the NBA, in the Words of the Men Who Played, Coached, and Built Pro Basketball (New York, 1992).Google Scholar
- 24.Nevada Pate, interview with Barbara J. Stevenson, June 22, 1994, in Remembering the Past: An Oral and Pictorial History of African Americans in Grant County, Indiana, vol. 1 (n.p., 1996).Google Scholar
- 29.Terry H. Anderson, The Movement and the Sixties (New York, 1995), provides national contexts and suggests how much later and more moderate the crises were in Marion compared to larger cities.Google Scholar
- 38.See also Edwards’s comments in Indianapolis Times, August 4, 1963.Google Scholar
- 54.Terry Higgins, “Conscience of a Nation,” UWM Today, vol. 1, no. 2 (1999), 6–7.Google Scholar