“To Implement Meaningful Change”

  • James Treat


Hundreds of mourners stood in solemn repose as the blanketed coffin was lowered into the ground. Pallbearers lined both sides of the grave; all were leaders of the American Indian Movement, and each wore a four-color armband matching the stripes of the white trade blanket. As soon as the coffin had settled into place, they offered a raised-fist salute to their fallen comrade, then cut off their armbands and threw half into the tomb. Journalists tracked the committal service, photographers and cameramen elbowing their way through the crowd in search of the elusive angle. When it was over Nelson and Florence Small Legs said goodbye to their eldest son one last time, then turned and walked away, embracing as they wept.1


Native People Meaningful Change Native Woman Canadian Government Native Youth 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Wendy Gray and Sam Erasmus, “A.I.M. Leader Stages Protest Suicide,” Native People 9, no. 1 (1976): 1–2; Barry Nelson, “Mourners Gather for Small Legs’ Burial,” Calgary Herald, May 22, 1976, 1–2; Joan Ryan, Wall of Words: The Betrayal of the Urban Indian (Toronto, Ontario: PMA Books, 1978), xv–xvi; Duane Champagne, ed., The Native North American Almanac: A Reference Work on Native North Americans in the United States and Canada (Detroit, MI: Gale Research, 1994), 1163.Google Scholar
  2. 6.
    Gary George, “Snow Says Judd Buchanan Is a ‘Confused Man,’” Native People 9, no. 1 (1976): 1–2; Gary George, “Snow Doubts Settlements Will Be Just,” Native People 9, no. 2 (1976): 8; “Dene Declaration,” in Dene Nation: The Colony Within, edited by Mel Watkins (Toronto, Ontario: University of Toronto Press, 1977), 3–4; Thomas R. Berger, Northern Frontier, Northern Homeland: The Report of the Mackenzie Valley Inquiry (Ottawa, Ontario: Minister of Supply and Services Canada, 1977); Olive Patricia Dickason, Canada’s First Nations: A History of Founding Peoples from Earliest Times (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1992), 402, 405–406; Roger L. Nichols, Indians in the United States and Canada: A Comparative History (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1998), 305–306.Google Scholar
  3. 11.
    Gary George, “Morley … Different Things to Different People,” Native People 9, no. 8 (1976); Ruth Blaser, “Reflection on the Indian Ecumenical Conference 1976,” [1976], ACC/AJ; James Kaquitts, “Activity Report for Period: July, August, September, 1976,” 1976, 1, NAC, record group 10, volume 12805, file E4735-2221; “Indian Ecumenical Conference 1976,” [1977], 1, ACC/NMO, collection GS85–6, box 2; John Snow, These Mountains Are Our Sacred Places: The Story of the Stoney Indians (Toronto, Ontario: Samuel-Stevens, Publishers, 1977), 142.Google Scholar
  4. 16.
    Alanis Obomsawin, Christmas at Moose Factory, produced by Wolf Koenig, directed by Alanis Obomsawin (Montreal, Quebec: National Film Board of Canada, 1971), 16mm film, 13 min.; Speaking Together: Canada’s Native Women (Ottawa, Ontario: Secretary of State, 1975), 104–105; Alanis Obomsawin, Mother of Many Children, produced and directed by Alanis Obomsawin (Montreal, Quebec: National Film Board of Canada, 1977), 16mm film, 58 min.; Zuzana Pick, “Storytelling and Resistance: The Documentary Practice of Alanis Obomsawin,” in Gendering the Nation: Canadian Women’s Cinema, edited by Kay Armatage, Kass Banning, Brenda Longfellow, and Janine Marchessault (Toronto, Ontario: University of Toronto Press, 1999), 76ff; National Film Board of Canada: Alanis Obomsawin, cited November 25, 2001, available from Scholar
  5. 21.
    John Bernard Taylor, Primal World-Views: Christian Involvement in Dialogue with Traditional Thought Forms (Ibadan, Nigeria: Daystar Press, 1976), 6; Snow, These, 142–149; John Snow, “Treaty Seven Centennial: Celebration or Commemoration?” in One Century Later: Western Canadian Reserve Indians since Treaty 7, edited by Ian A. L. Getty and Donald B. Smith (Vancouver, British Columbia: University of British Columbia Press, 1978), 4; Emma LaRoque, “The Anglican Church and Native People,” April 1987, 15, ACC/NMO, collection GS85–6, box 1, file 1; Warren Harbeck, telephone conversation with author, October 9, 2001.Google Scholar
  6. 22.
    Margaret Jaspar, “A. Ahenakew to Help at ‘Pen,’” Saskatchewan Anglican, January 1973, 1, 7; “In Memoriam: Andrew Ahenakew,” Saskatchewan Anglican, January 1977, 4; “Clerical Obituaries: Ahenakew, Andrew,” Canadian Churchman 104, no. 1 (1977): 27; Ernie Willie, “Cree Priest Was Healer in Last Years of Ministry,” Canadian Churchman 104, no. 2 (1977): 18; Andrew Ahenakew, Sometimes We Burn, Sometimes We Tremble (Toronto, Ontario: Anglican Church of Canada, [1977?]), videotape, 23 min.Google Scholar
  7. 23.
    “In Memoriam: Andrew Ahenakew,” 4; “Clerical Obituaries,” 27; Willie, “Cree,” 18; Ahenakew, Sometimes; Janet Hodgson and Jay Kothare, Vision Quest: Native Spirituality and the Church in Canada (Toronto, Ontario: Anglican Book Centre, 1990), 117; H. C. Wolfart and Freda Ahenakew, eds., They Knew Both Sides of Medicine: Cree Tales of Curing and Cursing Told by Alice Ahenakew ([Winnipeg, Manitoba]: University of Manitoba Press, 2000), 81.Google Scholar
  8. 38.
    Paul Heelas, The New Age Movement: The Celebration of the Self and the Sacralization of Modernity (Oxford, England: Blackwell Publishers, 1996), 1–2, 5, 15–20, 28–29, 54–55, 84–90, 108–113.Google Scholar
  9. 50.
    Scott, May 30, 1979; Journal of Proceedings of the 29th Session of the General Synod (Toronto, Ontario: Anglican Church of Canada, 1980), 307–310; Hodgson and Kothare, Vision, 104, 13 5–136; John W. Friesen, Aboriginal Spirituality and Biblical Theology: Closer Than You Think (Calgary, Alberta: Detselig Enterprises, 2000), 148.Google Scholar
  10. 51.
    “Indian Ecumenical Steering Committee Meeting”; “The Twelfth Annual Morley Conference for Indian Spiritual Life,” Stoney Echo 1, no. 2–3 (1981): 13; “Morley for a Spiritual Life,” Native People 14 (1981): 15; Adam Cuthand, “A Native Anglican Indian Speaks,” Interculture 15, no. 1 (1982): 38.Google Scholar
  11. 55.
    John A. Price, Native Studies: American and Canadian Indians (Toronto, Ontario: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1978), 67, 95, 108–111; John A. Price, Indians of Canada: Cultural Dynamics (Salem, WI: Sheffield Publishing Company, 1979), 231, 236.Google Scholar
  12. 56.
    Harold W. Turner, ed., Bibliography of New Religious Movements in Primal Societies, Vol. 2: North America (Boston, MA: G. K. Hall and Company, 1978), 27, 30, 34, 39, 41, 42, 45–47, 55, 216, 281; Ake Hultkrantz, The Study of American Indian Religions, edited by Christopher Vecsey (Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1983), 109; Penny Petrone, ed., First People, First Voices (Toronto, Ontario: University of Toronto Press, 1983), 190–192; John Webster Grant, Moon of Wintertime: Missionaries and the Indians of Canada in Encounter since 1534 (Toronto, Ontario: University of Toronto Press, 1984), 211–212; Calvin Martin, “The Metaphysics of Writing Indian-White History,” in The American Indian and the Problem of History, edited by Calvin Martin (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1987), 32; Paul B. Steinmetz, Pipe, Bible, and Peyote among the Oglala Lakota: A Study in Religious Identity (Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 1990), 209; Peter Nabokov, ed., Native American Testimony: A Chronicle of Indian-White Relations from Prophecy to the Present, 1492–1992 (New York, NY: Viking Penguin, 1991), 383; Joane Nagel, American Indian Ethnic Renewal: Red Power and the Resurgence of Identity and Culture (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1996), 191–192.Google Scholar
  13. 57.
    “The Fifteenth Morley Ecumenical Conference for Indian Spiritual Life,” Messenger 2, no. 4 (1987): 5; Meili, “Lightning,” 1; “Some Make Admirable Attempts to Put Spirituality Back in Place,” 6; Dianne Meili, Those Who Know: Profiles of Alberta’s Native Elders (Edmonton, Alberta: NeWest Press, 1991), 81–82.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© James Treat 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • James Treat

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations