Martin Bernal (1937–) from “Volume I: Introduction,” Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization (1987)
These volumes are concerned with two models of Greek history: one viewing Greece as essentially European or Aryan, and the other seeing it as Levantine, on the periphery of the Egyptian and Semitic cultural area. I call them the “Aryan” and the “Ancient” models. The “Ancient Model” was the conventional view among Greeks in the Classical and Hellenistic ages. According to it, Greek culture had arisen as the result of colonization, around 1500 BC, by Egyptians and Phoenicians who had civilized the native inhabitants. Furthermore, Greeks had continued to borrow heavily from Near Eastern cultures.