Independent Poland, 1920–1922
By the end of 1918, all three of the partitioning powers had fallen. Germany was exhausted by the war. Austria-Hungary disintegrated. Russia dissolved in a vicious civil war between Lenin’s Bolshevik government and an assortment of anti-Communist and pro-tsarist forces. As these situations evolved, Józef Piłsudski, leader of the pro-German and anti-Russian Polish Socialist Party, managed to hammer together a political arrangement with his political rival, Roman Dmowski, head of the pro-Russian National Democratic Party, that aimed at taking maximum nationalist advantage of the prevailing conditions to found a new Greater Polish nation-state.