Eastern Europe — Cultural
To make sense of Eastern European history, one must understand the cultural forces that have historically operated in that region. Human culture operates within societies on two levels, the macro and the micro. Macroculture, or civilization, is a complex culture shared by a network of numerous peoples spread over a large geographic area, in which all important social activities are encompassed by highly developed, sophisticated institutions; urbanization is widespread; a written language has been developed; and both division of labor and social differentiation exist. On the other hand, ethnonationality is now the primary expression of microculture for individual human societies. Every civilization incorporates a number of societies, with their respective microcultures, and the basic unifying factor is either a universal religious belief or a universal philosophy (or both in combination) to which all its membership subscribes.