The Balkans, Early 11th Century
On Simeon’s death in 927, the Bulgarian throne passed to his son Petŭr I (927–69). Petŭr was a pious Orthodox Christian and well-intentioned ruler, but personally he was weak. His piety helped end the incessant warfare with Byzantium instigated by his father. He cemented his friendly relations with the empire by marrying the granddaughter of Emperor Romanus I Lecapenus (920–44), who reciprocated by officially recognizing both Petŭr’s imperial title and the autocephaly of the Bulgarian Orthodox patriarchate of Ohrid. But peace with Byzantium did little to strengthen a Bulgarian state led by such a pacific ruler as Petŭr. Throughout his disinterested reign, Bulgaria’s powerful military forces were permitted to decay, leading to constant threats by the Magyars, who had established their own state north of Bulgaria’s northwestern Danubian frontier, and to incursions by raiders from the Eurasian steppes in the northeast.