• Paula M. Rayman


This woman, an early supermom, gives us a vivid picture of a life where work provides not only a livelihood but also self-respect. She reaps strength and honor from her paid and unpaid labors: We see her skillfully working with her hands; we see her diligence and commitment to feeding her household; we see her intelligence at work and in the market place and we see her reaching out to those who are in need. She has composed a life that gives her inner strength and validation by others. It is a work life that most of us seek to replicate, work that offers us dignity resting on internal respect for ourselves and the respect drawn from others. And like the Woman of Valor, we could all use more sleep and recreation time!


Bottom Line Underground Economy Unpaid Labor Vivid Picture Pension Saving 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (New York: Modern Library, 1937), 734.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Peter Drucker, Concept of the Corporation (New York: New American Library, 1983), 152.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sara Lawrence-Lightfoot, Respect: An Exploration (Reading, Mass.: Perseus Books, 1999), 9.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Martin Buber, I and Thou (New York: Touchstone, 1996).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Judith Jordan, “A Relational Perspective on Self-Esteem” (Wellesley: Center for Research on Women at Wellesley College, 1994).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jean Baker Miller and Irene Pierce Stiver, The Healing Connection: How Women Form Relationships in Therapy and in Life (Boston: Beacon Press, 1997), 46.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Finding Flow: The Psychology of Engagement with Everyday Life (New York: Basic Books, 1997), 58.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nancy C. Morse and Robert S. Weiss, “The Function and Memory of Work and the Job,” American Sociological Review 20, no. 2 (1955).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jonathan Cobb and Richard Sennett, The Hidden Injuries of Class (New York: Norton, 1993), 92.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Phillipe Bourgois, In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 143–44.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
    Suzanne Gordon, Life Support: Three Nurses on the front Lines (Boston: Little Brown and Company, 1997), 45.Google Scholar
  13. 14.
    Ann Barnard and Katherine Tong, “The Doctor is Out,” Boston Globe, 9 July 2000, sec. A, p. 18.Google Scholar
  14. 15.
    Cynthia Fuchs Epstein, et al., The Part-Time Paradox: Time Norms, Professional Lives, Family, and Gender (New York: Routeledge, 1999), 84.Google Scholar
  15. 16.
    Ibid., 85.Google Scholar
  16. 17.
    Jonathan Cobb and Richard Sennett, op. cit., 83.Google Scholar
  17. 18.
    Paula Rayman and Barry Bluestone, Out of Work: The Consequences of Unemployment in the Hartford Aircraft Industry (Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Mental Health, 1981).Google Scholar
  18. 19.
    Robert Merton. Social Theory and Social Structure (New York: Free Press, 1968).Google Scholar
  19. 20.
    Among the best studies on this subject are Robert Angell, The Family Encounters the Depression (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1936); Mirra Komarovsky, The Unemployed Man and His Family (New York: Octagon Books, 1971); Ramsay Liem, “The Psychological Costs of Unemployment: A Comparison of Findings and Definitions,” Social Research 54, no. 2 (1987); and Harry Maurer, Not Working: An Oral History of the Unemployed (New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1979).Google Scholar
  20. 21.
    Marie Jahoda, et al., Marienthal: The Sociography of an Unemployed Community (Chicago: Atherton, 1971).Google Scholar
  21. 23.
    Katherine Newman, Falling From Grace: Downward Mobility in the Age of Affluence (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999).Google Scholar
  22. 24.
    William Julius Wilson, When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor (New York: Knopf, 1996), 160.Google Scholar
  23. 26.
    Deborah Stone, “The Meaning and Value of Caring Work” (Cambridge: Radcliffe Public Policy Center, 1999).Google Scholar
  24. 27.
    Paula Rayman, “Women and Employment,” Social Research 54, no. 2 (1987).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Paula M. Rayman 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paula M. Rayman

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations