Advertisement

The “Macho” Body as Social Malinche

  • Gabriel S. Estrada
Part of the New Directions in Latino American Cultures book series (NDLAC)

Abstract

How can specific Indigenous cultural methodologies help create more balanced Indigenous sexual and cultural movements? In relation to the Eurocentric colonial state, postmodern feminism, Mestiza/o discourses on hybridity, and pan-Nativism, I propose an Indigenous methodology in which the Indigenous body circles through four directions in order to find an internal and external balance of masculinity, old age, femininity, and youth that reconcile aspects of two-spirit, Indigenous, and Xicana/o agendas. This essay moves earthwise, or counterclockwise, beginning in the east and moving north, west, and south. In the east, I discuss international Indigenous rights, wars, migrations, sexual violence, and imprisonment in an initial political grounding on Indigenous issues. The northern section critically reviews the colonial literature on Indigenous sexuality, contrasting its racist and (hetero)sexist leanings with the oral traditions and writings of contemporary Indigenous peoples. In the west, Indigenous internal and external sexual relations are contemporary and complementary: As the Nahuatl female body can act as a masculinized warrior, so can the Nahuatl male body embody feminized ideals, such as those Inés Hernández-Ávila expresses in her formulation of the “social Malinche” as an activist and intellectual. Lastly, the southern movement features new media and proposes that some might use cinema, literature, or the world wide web to deepen their embodiment as social Malinches by defying centuries of heterosexism and racism and ameliorating Indigenous relations that are inclusive of the love and affection of the heart.

Keywords

Indigenous People Oral Tradition Indigenous Woman Drag Queen Indigenous Issue 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 2.
    See S. James Anaya, Indigenous Rights in International Law (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996)Google Scholar
  2. Howard Berman, United Nations Commission on Human Rights Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities: Draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples 34 I.L.M. 541 (1995). For more background of initial formation, see United Nations, Report of the Working Group on Indigenous Populations on Its Twelfth Session (E/CN/Sub.2/1994/30).Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    Noam Chomsky, Rogue States: The Use of Force in World Affairs (Cambridge: South End Press, 2000), 93.Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    Noam Chomsky, 9–11 (New York: Seven Story Press, 2001), 23.Google Scholar
  5. 6.
    Susan Grimes, Crossing Borders: Changing Social Identities in Southern Mexico (Tucson: University of Arizona, 1998), 18.Google Scholar
  6. 7.
    Joe Gorton and Nikki R. Van Hightower, “Intimate Victimization of Latina Farm Workers: A Research Summary,” Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences vol. 21 issue 4, ed. Amado Padilla (London: Sage Publications, Nov 99), 502.Google Scholar
  7. 8.
    Miguel A. Rubio and Carlos Zolla, eds., Estado del Desarrollo Económico y Social de Los Pueblos Indigenas de México, 1996–1997: Primer informe tomo 1 y 2, (México: Institute Nacional Indigenista, 2000), 224.Google Scholar
  8. 10.
    Carlos G. Vélez-Iba¡ez, Border Visions: Mexican Cultures of the Southwest United States (Tucson: University of Arizona, 1996), 195.Google Scholar
  9. 11.
    Luana Ross, Inventing the Savage: The Social Construction of Native American Criminality (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1998), 267.Google Scholar
  10. 12.
    Phillip M. Kayal, Bearing Witness: Gay Men’s Health Crisis and the Politics of AIDS (Boulder: Westview Press, 1993), 56.Google Scholar
  11. 13.
    Randy Burns, “Preface,” Living the Spirit: A Gay American Indian Anthology (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1988), 1.Google Scholar
  12. 15.
    For a discussion on the “flowery” Chichimec and Nahuatl xochihuan homosexual, see Clark L. Taylor, “Legends, Syncretism, and Continuing Echoes of Homosexuality from Pre-Columbian and Colonial Mexico,” Latin American Homosexualities ed. Stephen O. Murray (Albuquerque: New Mexico University Press, 1995), 82.Google Scholar
  13. 17.
    Tezozomoc, “Revernacularizing Classical Náhuatl Through Danza (Dance) Azteca-Chichimeca,” in Teaching Indigenous Languages ed. Jon Reyhner (Flagstaff: Northern Arizona University, 1997), 68.Google Scholar
  14. 19.
    See Victor Vio’s Chitontiquiza: Reportaje del Silencio Mexicano (Mexico: Grijalbo, 1998).Google Scholar
  15. 21.
    Gloria Anzaldua, Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza (San Francisco: Spinsters/Aunt Lute, 1987), 32.Google Scholar
  16. 22.
    Rigoberta Menchú, Crossing Borders trans. Ann Wright (London: Verso Books, 1998), 60.Google Scholar
  17. 23.
    Walter William, The Spirit and the Flesh: Sexual Diversity in American Indian Culture (Boston: Beacon Press, 1992), 137.Google Scholar
  18. 24.
    Aside from Guerra’s text, cited above, see also Richard C. Trexler’s Sex and Conquest: Gendered Violence, Political Order, and the European Conquest of the Americas (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995)Google Scholar
  19. Will Roscoe’s Changing Ones: Third and Fourth Genders in Native North America (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998) specifically addresses and critiques what he terms as Trexel and Gutiérrez’s “horror” of consensual berdache sex.Google Scholar
  20. 27.
    Geoffrey Kimball, “Aztec Homosexuality: The Textual Evidence,” Journal of Homosexuality 26.1 (1993): 7–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 31.
    Arturo Aldama, Disrupting Savagism: Intersecting Chicana/o, Mexican Immigrant, and Native American Struggles for Self-Representation (London: Duke University Press, 2001), 73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 33.
    Cherrie Moraga, The Last Generation: Prose and Poetry (Boston: South End Press, 1993), 162.Google Scholar
  23. 37.
    Ramón Garcia, “Amor Indio: Juan Diego of San Diego,” Virgins, Guerrillas, Locas: Gay Latinos Writing About Love ed. Jaime Cortéz (San Francisco: Cleis Press, 1999), 142.Google Scholar
  24. 42.
    Bell Hooks, Black Looks: Race and Representation (Boston: South End Press, 1992), 148–149.Google Scholar
  25. 43.
    Claudia Schaefer, Textured Lives: Women, Art, and Representation in Modern Mexico (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1992), 25.Google Scholar
  26. 44.
    Joanne Hershfield, Mexican Cinema, Mexican Women: 1940–1950 (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1996), 57.Google Scholar
  27. 46.
    Moya, Paula M. L. “Postmodernism, ‘Realism,’ and the Politics of Identity: Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Feminism,” Feminist Geneologies, Colonial Legacies, Democratic Futures ed. M. Jacqui Alexander and Chondra Talpade Mohanty (New York: Routledge, 1997), 130–131.Google Scholar
  28. 47.
    Inés Hernández-Ávila, “An Open Letter to Chicanas: On the Power and Politics of Origin,” Reinventing the Enemy’s Language: Contemporary Native Women’s Writings of North America eds. Joy Harjo and Gloria Bird (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1997), 244–245.Google Scholar
  29. 49.
    Linda Rosa Fregoso, The Bronze Screen: Chicana and Chicano Film Culture (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993), 113.Google Scholar
  30. 56.
    Quoted in Richard Fung’s “Looking for My Penis: The Eroticized Asian in Gay Video Porn,” How Do I Look? Queer Film and Theory ed. Bad Object Choices (Seattle: Bay Press, 1991), 261.Google Scholar
  31. 57.
    Antonio Rios Bustamante, “Latino Participation in Hollywood,” Chicanos and Film: Representation and Resistance ed. Chon Noriega (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992), 21. Representation for queers was also oppressive in the mid-1900s due to capitalistic white heterosexism, asGoogle Scholar
  32. Vito Russo argues in The Celluloid Closet: Homosexuality in the Movies (New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1989), 52.Google Scholar
  33. 59.
    See Nadine S. Koch and H. Eric Schockman, “Democratizing Internet Access in the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Communities,” Cyberghetto or Cybertopia? Race Class and Gender on the Internet ed. Bosah Ebo (Westport: Praeger, 1998), 171.Google Scholar
  34. 65.
    Tom Holm, Strong Hearts, Wounded Souls: Native American Veterans of the Vietnam War (Austin: University of Texas, 1996), 196.Google Scholar
  35. 66.
    Marcos, Subcomandante Insurgente, Our Word Is Our Weapon ed. Juana Ponce de Leon (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2001), 177.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Alicia Gaspar de Alba 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabriel S. Estrada

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations