Advertisement

Designing for Sustainability

  • Helen Lewis
Chapter

Abstract

Packaging for sustainability initiatives can be identified through strategic and operational planning processes, but they are primarily delivered through design. Packaging design is an already complex process that considers many aspects of marketing, packaging function and cost. Designing for sustainability adds further complexity to this process. To integrate these new requirements into the packaging design process efficiently and effectively we propose the use of a packaging sustainability framework. A framework is presented that applies a triple bottom line approach to packaging design based on four design principles: effectiveness (fit for purpose), efficiency (efficient use of materials, energy and water), cyclic material flows (renewable/recyclable materials and minimal waste) and safety (non-polluting and non-toxic). Each principle is outlined, and practical design strategies and case studies are provided to demonstrate their application.

Keywords

Supply Chain Forest Stewardship Council Triple Bottom Line Packaging System Life Cycle Thinking 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Envirowise (2008) Packguide: a guide to packaging eco-design. Envirowise, Didcot, OxfordshireGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Packaging Council of Australia (2010). The Donald Richardson Packaging Collection—That was then, This is Now. http://www.pca.org.au/site/index.php/articles/article/1/546/The%20Donald%20Richardson%20Packaging%20Collection (cited 29 April 2011)
  3. 3.
    Lewis, H., Sonneveld, K., Fitzpatrick, L. and Nicol, R (2002) Towards Sustainable Packaging. Discussion Paper. http://www.sustainablepack.org/database/files/filestorage/Towards%20Sustainable%20Packaging.pdf (cited 14 May 2009)
  4. 4.
    The Consumer Goods Forum (2010) A global language for packaging and sustainability, ParisGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    SPC (2006) Design guidelines for sustainable packaging, version 1.0. Sustainable Packaging Coalition Charlottesville, VirginiaGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    KeepCup (2011) FAQs. http://www.keepcup.com/the-keepcup/faq (cited 14 March 2011)
  7. 7.
    Britten N (2003) 60,000 are injured by opening packaging, The Telegraph, 11 February 2003. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1421698/60000-are-injured-by-openingpackaging.html#. Accessed 25 Oct 2009
  8. 8.
    Business Wire (2001) Duracell launches its most powerful hearing aid battery ever with breakthrough consumer benefits, 16 April 2001. http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Duracell+Launches+Its+Most+Powerful+Hearing+Aid+Battery+Ever+With...-a073238213. Accessed 7 Nov 2010
  9. 9.
    The Center for Universal Design (2001) Duracell listens to its customers. Case studies on universal design. http://www.ncsu.edu/ncsu/design/cud/projserv_ps/projects/case_studies/Duracell.htm (cited 10 November 2010)
  10. 10.
    Hawken P, Lovins A, Lovins LH (1999) Natural capitalism. Little Brown and Company, BostonGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    von Weizsacker E, Lovins A, Lovins H (1997) Factor 4: doubling wealth—halving resource use. Allen & Unwin, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schmidt-Bleek B (2000). Factor 10 manifesto. January 2000. Downloadable paper. http://www.factor10-institute.org/files/F10_Manifesto_e.pdf (cited 8 August 2008)
  13. 13.
    Weaver P, Jansen L, van Grootveld G, van Spiegel E, Vergragt P (2000) Sustainable technology development. Greenleaf Publishing, SheffieldGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Parker G (2008) Measuring the environmental performance of food packaging: life cycle assessment. In: Chiellini E (ed) Environmentally compatible food packaging. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, pp 211–237Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    United Nations Environment Program (2005) Ecosystems and well-being: synthesis. A report of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. http://www.millenniumassessment.org/documents/document.356.aspx.pdf (cited 1 October 2007)
  16. 16.
    Wal-Mart (2006) Wal-Mart launches 5-year plan to reduce packaging. http://walmartstores.com/pressroom/news/5951.aspx (cited 17 September 2010)
  17. 17.
    Greener Design (2008) Dell’s packaging plan: cut 20 million pounds, save $8 million, 16 December 2008. http://www.greenbiz.com/news/2008/12/16/dells-packagingplan-cut-20-million-pounds-save-8-million. Accessed 31 Dec 2008
  18. 18.
    Dell (2008) Corporate responsibility summary report.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    McDonough W, Braungart M (2002) Cradle to cradle: remaking the way we make things. North Point Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Grant T, James K, Lundie S, Sonneveld K (2001) Stage 2 report for life cycle assessment for paper and packaging waste management scenarios for Victoria. EcoRecycle Victoria, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tetra Pak (2010) Tetra Pak extends FSC™-labelled beverage cartons to customers in Sweden, Denmark and Belgium. Media release, 24 SeptemberGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Smith R, Lourie B (2009) Slow death by rubber duck. University of Queensland Press, St LuciaGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    KPMG (2008) Trial of a government and industry charge on plastic bags. http://www.ephc.gov.au/sites/default/files/PS_PBags_Rpt_KPMG_Final_Report_on_the_Trial_of_a_Charge_on_Plastic_Bags_20081030.pdf (cited 23 January 2009)
  24. 24.
    Osborne D (2010) Dumped in the surf. Sustainability, 2:101–103Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    EPHC (2008) Decision Regulatory Impact Statement (RIS): Investigation of options to reduce the impacts of plastic bags. http://www.ephc.gov.au/pdf/Plastic_Bags/200805__Plastic_Bags__Decision_RIS__Options_to_Reduce_Impacts__incl_AppendicesCD.pdf (cited 26 September 2008)
  26. 26.
    Chessell K (2009) Brand owners responsibility when designing new packaging, Presentation to Australian Packaging Summit, 25 August. MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Boylston S (2009) Designing sustainable packaging. Laurence King Publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hedditch B (2009) Director, SustainPak, H. Lewis, Editor. MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Arthritis Foundation (2010) Easy to use products. http://www.arthritis.org/ease-of-use-new.php (cited 20 October 2009)
  30. 30.
    Ditching Cereal Boxes (2011) Whats New in Food Manufacturing & Technology. (January/February): p 22Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    EUROPEN and STFI-Packforst (2009) The European shopping baskets: packaging trends for fast moving consumer goods in selected European countries. EUROPEN and STFI-Packforst, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Thinking about the box (2009). What’s New in Food Technology & Manufacturing (Nov/Dec): p 12–13Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bransgrove G (2009) Putting over-packaging under the hammer, Presentation to Australian Packaging Summit 25 August. MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bunnings Group Limited (2009) Bunnings and sustainability. http://www.bunnings.com.au/contact-us_bunnings-sustainability.aspx (cited 12 April 2009)
  35. 35.
    INCPEN (2009) Table for one: the energy cost to feed one person. Report http://www.incpen.org/docs/TableForOne.pdf (cited 11 November 2009)
  36. 36.
    Erlov L, Lofgren C, Soras A (2000) Packaging—a tool for the prevention of environmental impact. Packforsk, KistaGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Twede D (1995) Less waste on the loading dock: competitive strategy and the reduction of logistical packaging waste. Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Unilever (2001) Unit dose: a sustainability step for fabrics liquids. Report. http://www.unilever.com/images/capsules_tcm3-4586_tcm13-40198.pdf. Accessed 18 March 2011
  39. 39.
    Packaging Council of Australia (2008) Carter Holt Harvey Sustainability Award. http://pca.org.au/results08/apa/page.php?page=cartersustain (cited 15 March 2011)
  40. 40.
    Sam's Club square case-less milk jug packaging (2008) Sustainable is Good 1 July. http://www.sustainableisgood.com/blog/2008/07/sams-clubsquar.html (Accessed 17 Dec 2009)
  41. 41.
    Mans J (2007) Computer-controlled filler runs all fat levels of milk. Packaging DigestGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    PIRA International Ltd and ECOLAS N.V (2005) Study on the implementation of Directive 94/62/EC on Packaging and Packaging Waste and options to strengthen prevention and re-use of packaging, final report. 2005: Surrey, UKGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    WRAP (2009) Beverages: self-dispensing. Waste & Resources Action Program (WRAP). Bunbury, UKGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    WRAP (2009) WRAP retail trials could signal a ‘reusables revolution’ in packaging. Media release. http://www.wrap.org.uk/downloads/Reusables_-_Supporting_Infomation.1f2bdded.7589.pdf. Accessed 8 Nov 2010
  45. 45.
    CHEP, What is black and blue and green all over? Comparative lifecycle assessment in the fresh supply chain. 2010: MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Crates offer produce a green premium (2010) in PKN Packaging News, Yaffa Publishing, Sydney. p 34Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    WRAP (undated) Reusable 'Carrierpac' protects product and cuts down on packaging. Case study. Waste & Resources Action Program (WRAP). http://www.wrap.org.uk/downloads/15203-07_BQ_CS_LoRes.77db7a77.3742.pdf. Accessed 24 Dec 2009
  48. 48.
    WRAP (undated) Reusable transit packaging reduces costs, reduces packaging, improves efficiency and builds brand value. Case study. http://www.wrap.org.uk/downloads/15203-05_Overall_CS_LoRes.064901c4.3740.pdfh. Accessed 8 Nov 2010
  49. 49.
    PIRA International (2000) Strategic futures: multi-trip versus single-trip secondary packaging. Pira International, LeatherheadGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Saphire D (1994) Delivering the goods: benefits of reusable shipping containers. INFORM, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    FDA (2006) Use of recycled plastics in food packaging: chemistry considerations. Second edition: http://www.fda.gov/food/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/GuidanceDocuments/FoodIngredientsandPackaging/ucm120762.htm (cited 9 January 2007)
  52. 52.
    Rodgers M (2006) Large scale demonstration of the viability of recycled PET (rPET) in retail packaging. Coca-Cola Enterprises Ltd, BanburyGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Recycling on the menu: McDonald’s Australia becoming more sustainable. Waste Streams, 2006 (Dec 2006/Jan 2007): p 17Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    First ever true bottle-to-box recycled product, the ECO-CHIC 100% recycled PET Bottle Box (2009) Press release. http://www.earthtimes.org/articles/show/first-ever-true-bottle-to-box-recycled,1025766.shtml# (cited 29 December 2009)
  55. 55.
    Churchwood, G., A. Ebel, E. Kosior, O. Tait, A. Jenkins, and S. Owen (2006) Large-scale demonstration of viability of recycled PET (rPET) in retail packaging: Closed Loop London (M&S, Boots). WRAP: Banbury, UKGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Marks & Spencer (2005) Marks & Spencer closes the recycling loop. Media release. http://corporate.marksandspencer.com/investors/press_releases/company/08062005_MarksSpencerClosesTheRecyclingLoop (cited 30 December 2009)
  57. 57.
    Marks & Spencer (2007) Marks & Spencer launches the world’s first plastic milk bottle using recycled material. Press release 2007. http://corporate.marksandspencer.com/investors/press_releases/company/30032007_MarksSpencerLaunchesTheWorldsFirstPlasticMilkBottleUsingRecycledMaterial (cited 30 Dec 2009)
  58. 58.
    From packaging to food: mineral oil migration. Food Processing, 2010 (July/August): p 63–66Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sustainable Packaging Coalition (2010) Guidelines for increasing recycled content in plastic packaging. Charlottesville, VirginiaGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    The Paper Task Force (1995) Paper Task Force recommendations for purchasing and using environmentally preferable paper. Environmental Defence Fund: New YorkGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    ISO 14021:1999, Environmental labels and declarations - Type II environmental labelling - Principles and procedures. International Standards Organization (ISO): GenevaGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Packaging Resources Action Group (2009) An introduction to packaging and recyclability. http://www.wrap.org.uk/retail_supply_chain/research_tools/tools/packaging_and.html. Accessed 5 June 2010
  63. 63.
    Recoup (2009) Plastics packaging: recyclability by design. Woodston, UKGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Amazon (2010) Amazon certified frustration free packaging FAQs. http://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html?nodeId=200285450 (cited 2 January 2010)
  65. 65.
    Lewis H (2009) Quickstart 4: Degradable polymers in product design. Sustainability Victoria and Plastics and Chemicals Industries Association. MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Bardelline J (2009) Coca-Cola to Test Dasani Bottles Made with Sugar Cane, Molasses. Greenbiz.com, 15 May 2009. http://www.greenbiz.com/print/25190. Accessed 20 Feb 2010
  67. 67.
    PACIA (2007) Using Degradable Plastics in Australia. A Product Stewardship Guide Commitment. Australian Government. Department of the Environment and Water Resources, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    SunChips adds Green-e label to package (2007) Environmental Leader, 14 September 2007. http://www.environmentalleader.com/2007/09/14/sunchipspackaging-includes-green-e-label/. Accessed 15 Feb 2010
  69. 69.
    Australian Packaging Covenant: a commitment by governments and industry to the sustainable design, use and recovery of packaging (2010) APC Secretariat: SydneyGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    European Printing Industry Association (2007) Exclusion list for printing inks and related products. http://www.cepe.org/EPUB/easnet.dll/GetDoc?APPL=1&DAT_IM=020A3B&TYPE=PDF (cited 31 December 2009)
  71. 71.
    Ciba Specialty Chemicals (2004) Colorants for use in food packaging, toys and consumer goodsGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Green Century Capital Management and As You Sow (2009) Seeking safer packaging: ranking packaged food companies on BPAGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Consumers Union (2009) Concern over canned foods. http://www.consumerreports.org/cro/magazine-archive/december-2009/food/bpa/overview/bisphenol-a-ov.htm (cited 16 February 2010)
  74. 74.
    Environment California. Bispenol A overview. Undated. http://www.environmentcalifornia.org/environmental-health/stop-toxic-toys/bisphenol-a-overview%20 (cited 31 December 2009)
  75. 75.
    Health Canada (2008) Government of Canada protects families with Bisphenol A regulations. Press release. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ahc-asc/media/nr-cp/_2008/2008_167-eng.php (cited 31 December 2009)
  76. 76.
    Environmental Working Group (2007) Bisphenol A: toxic plastics chemical in canned food: companies reduced BPA exposures in Japan. http://www.ewg.org/node/20938 (cited 26 January 2010)
  77. 77.
    Voith M (2009) Can conundrum. Chem Eng News 87(29):28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Heinz (2009) CSR Report 2009. http://www.heinz.com/CSR2009/social/business/food_safety.aspx (cited 1 January 2010)
  79. 79.
    Coghlan P (2001) A discussion of some of the scientific issues concerning the use of PVC. CSIRO Molecular Science and Australian National University. A report to the Vinyl Council of Australia, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Scheirs J (2003) End-of-life environmental issues with PVC in Australia. Report to Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Excelplas Polymer Technology, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Australian Consumers Association (2008) What’s lurking under the lid? Choice, August, p 24–25Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Phthalates Information Centre Europe (2010) Classification and labelling. http://www.hthalates.com/index.asp?page=56 (cited 6 January 2010)
  83. 83.
    Biodegradable plasticiser developed as phthalate replacement (2006) Food Production Daily, 6 January 2006. http://www.foodproductiondaily.com/Packaging/Biodegradable-plasticiser-developedas-phthalate-replacement. Accessed 5 June 2008
  84. 84.
    Toxics in Packaging Clearinghouse (2007) An assessment of heavy metals in packaging. Report to the US Environment Protection AgencyGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Envirowise (2008) Packaging design for the environment: reducing costs, quantities (Report # GG360). Envirowise, Harwel International Business Centre, DidcotGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Towards sustainability with solvent-free adhesives (2009) In: Packaging News, Australia, p 30Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    AET Elemental chlorine-free: what the experts say. undated, The Alliance for Environmental Technology (AET). http://www.aet.org/reports/communication_resources/pamphlets/experts_final.pdf. Accessed 7 Jan 2010
  88. 88.
    CFPA (2010) Chlorine Free Products Association (CFPA). Undated. http://www.chlorinefreeproducts.org/ (cited 7 January 2010)
  89. 89.
    Darby A (2010) Buyers force Tasmanian woodchip mills to use only plantation timber. In: The Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, p 9 (5 February 2010)Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Wikipedia (2010) Beverage can, 2 January 2011. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beverage_can
  91. 91.
    EUROPEN and ECR Europe (2009) Packaging in the sustainability agenda: a guide for corporate decision makers. The European Organisation for Packagign and the Environment (EUROPEN) and ECR Europe: BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Designing for society (2009) Packaging News, June, p 23Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Commission of the European Communities (2009) Quantities of packaging waste generated in the Member State and recovered or incinerated at waste incineration plants with energy recovery within or outside the Member State, Brussels 2007Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    NPCC (2008) Mid-term performance review data report, 5 December 2008. http://www.packagingcovenant.org.au/documents/File/MTR%20Data%20Report%20Final(1).pdf
  95. 95.
    US EPA (2008) Municipal solid waste generation, recycling, and disposal in the United States: facts and figures for 2007, 4 May 2009. http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/nonhaz/municipal/pubs/msw07-fs.pdf
  96. 96.
    Alston K (2010) Cradle to cradle design: Positive sustainability agenda for products and packaging; the limitations of eco-efficiency, Presentation to Packaging for tomorrow. 7 December 2010, 3 Pillars Network, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Packaging Council New Zealand (2008) Mass balance—consumption and collection, 4 May 2009. http://www.packaging.org.nz/packaging_info/packaging_consum.php
  98. 98.
    Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (2008) Towards a 3R-oriented sustainable society: legislation and trends, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    OECD (2007) OECD environmental data: compendium 2006–2008. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for DesignRMIT UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations