Developing the Strategy

  • Leanne Fitzpatrick
  • Karli Verghese
  • Helen Lewis


The commercial operating environment is increasingly demanding more sustainable products and improved environmental performance. How a business responds to this demand should be embedded within its corporate strategy. For many years, packaging has been at centre stage in political and consumer campaigns to address environmental issues. Packaging does generate environmental impacts in all stages of its life cycle however these cannot be isolated from the impacts of the product it protects. Packaging’s role in the corporate strategy should be clearly identified, by understanding the environmental life cycle of products and their packaging and relevant current or emerging environmental regulations. Packaging sustainability initiatives should optimise the product-packaging system and reduce specific environmental impacts including those of the packaging itself. This chapter outlines issues to consider in constructing the business case for investing in packaging for sustainability and, setting goals and targets for packaging’s contribution to a business’s more general sustainable development goals.


Supply Chain Life Cycle Assessment Municipal Solid Waste Business Case Corporate Sustainability 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    White P (2009) Building a sustainability strategy into the business. Corp Gov 9(4):386–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    World Business Council for Sustainable Development (2006) WBCSD learning tool helps companies to adopt, implement and integrate eco-efficiency. (cited 13 December 2010)
  3. 3.
    McDonough W, Braungart M (2002) Cradle to cradle: remaking the way we make things. North Point Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dow Jones (2010) Sustainability Index. Corporate sustainability.
  5. 5.
    Busser S, Jungbluth N (2009) The role of flexible packaging in the life cycle of coffee and butter. Int J LCA 14(Suppl 1):S80–S91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (2010) Ten year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, revised draft 7 April 2010. Marakesh Process Secretariat—United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs and United Nations Environment ProgrammeGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Walmart (2008) Sustainable packaging fact sheet: Walmart is taking the lead on sustainable packaging. (cited 7 August 2011)
  8. 8.
    Lewis H, Sonneveld K, Fitzpatrick L, Nicol R (2002) Towards sustainable packaging, Discussion paper. (cited 14 May 2009)
  9. 9.
    DJSI (2008) SAM, Dow Jones Indexes and Stoxx Ltd. announce results of Dow Jones sustainability indexes review. (cited 20 September 2010)
  10. 10.
    Sustainable Packaging Coalition (2005) Definition of Sustainable Packaging, Version 1. (cited 2 April 2009)
  11. 11.
    Nike (2010) Packaging restricted substances list and design requirements. (cited 7 August 2011)
  12. 12.
    The Consumer Goods Forum (2009) A global language for packaging and sustainability. A framework and a measurement system for our industry. The Consumer Goods Forum, ParisGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Grant T, Beer T (2008) Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from irrigated maize and their significance in the value chain. Aust J Exp Agric 48(3):375–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Marks and Spencer (2010) Your M&S: how we do business 2010. LondonGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    McDonald’s (2011) McDonald’s global environmental commitment—effectively managing solid waste. (cited 9 March 2011)
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
    Gazulla C, Raugei M, Fullana-I-Palmer P (2010) Taking a life cycle look at crianza wine production in Spain: where are the bottlenecks? Int J Life Cycle Assess 15(4):330–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    P&G (2010) Now & for Generations to Come. 2010 Sustainability Overview. Procter and GambleGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mohan AM (2010) P&G elucidates new sustainability strategy. 19 October 2010];
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
    Helen Lewis Research (2009) Quickstart 3. Plastics and Chemical Industry Association and Sustainability Victoria, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Commission of the European Communities (1994) European Parliament and Council directive 94/62/EC of 20 December 1994 on packaging and packaging wasteGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    United Nations (1987) Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future, Transmitted to the General Assembly as an Annex to document A/42/427—Development and international cooperation: environment. UN WCED, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Elkington J (1997) Cannibals with forks: The Triple Bottom line of 21st century business. Capstone Publishing Limited, UKGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Commission of the European Communities (2008) Communication from the Commission on sustainable consumption and production and sustainable industrial policy action plan. BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Verfaillie H, Bidwell R (2000) Measuring eco-efficiency: a guide to reporting company performance. World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Alston K (2010) Cradle to cradle design: Positive sustainability agenda for products and packaging; the limitations of eco-efficiency. Address to Packaging for Tomorrow, 7 December 2010. 3 Pillars Network, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dunphy D, Griffiths A, Benn S (2003) Organisational change for corporate sustainability. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Willard B (2010) The 5-stage Sustainability Journey. (cited 20 September 2010)
  30. 30.
    Nidumolu R, Prahalad CK, Rangaswami MR (2009) Why sustainability is now the key driver of innovation. Harvard Business Review. 2009 (September): pp 56–64Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Balkau F, Sonnemann G (2010) Managing sustainability performance through the value-chain. Corp Gov 10(1):46–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sustainable Packaging Coalition (2005) Definition of sustainable packaging, version 1.0. (cited 19 October 2007)
  33. 33.
    Sustainable Packaging Coalition (2009) Sustainable packaging indicators and metrics. Sustainable Packaging Coalition (SPC), Charlottesville, VAGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    The Consumer Goods Forum (2010) A global language for packaging and sustainability. ParisGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    The Consumer Goods Forum (2011) Global protocol on packaging sustainability 2.0: draft for consultationGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Linde A (2010) Packaging and sustainability—developing international standards on packaging and the environment. Address to Packaging for Tomorrow, 7 December 2010. MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    EUROPEN and ECR Europe (2009) Packaging in the sustainability agenda: a guide for corporate decision makers. The European Organisation for Packaging and the Environment (EUROPEN) and ECR Europe, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes (2010) Dow Jones sustainability indexes. (cited 9 March 2011)
  39. 39.
    GRI (2006) Sustainability reporting guidelines. (cited 27 March 2009)
  40. 40.
    Commission of the European Communities (2010) The retail forum. (cited 19 December 2010)
  41. 41.
    WRAP (2010) The Courtauld Commitment. Waste & Resources Action Program (WRAP): Banbury, Oxon, UKGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Leahy T (2007) Tesco, carbon and the consumer: Address to a Joint Forum for the Future and Tesco event. (cited 29 October 2007)
  43. 43.
    J Sainsbury plc (2010) Sainsbury’s Corporate Responsibility Report, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Carrefour Group (2009) At the heart of life: 2008 sustainability report. Levallois-Perret Cedex, FranceGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
  46. 46.
    Closed Loop Recycling (2010) Sydney 2000 Olympic games case study. (cited 14 December 2010)
  47. 47.
    European Environment Agency (2010) Generation and recycling of packaging waste. (cited 19 December 2010)
  48. 48.
    Commission of the European Communities (2008) Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain other Directives, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Environment Protection and Heritage Council (2009) National waste policy: less waste, more resources. Environment Protection and Heritage Council (EPHC), AdelaideGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    United States Environment Protection Agency (2009) Municipal solid waste generation, recycling and disposal in the United States: facts and figures, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Shafawi M, Loh D (2010) Singapore Packaging Agreement helps signatories save S$8.34m. Singapore News, 25 October. (cited 7 August 2011)
  52. 52.
    Verghese K, Lewis H (2007) Environmental innovation in industrial packaging: a supply chain approach. Int J Prod Res 45(18/19):4381–4401CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Stern N (2006) Stern Review Report on the Economics of Climate Change. (cited 29 October 2007)
  54. 54.
    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007) Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Working Group II contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change fourth assessment report. Summary for policy makers. (cited 29 October 2007)
  55. 55.
    Pachauri RK, Reisinger A (eds.) (2007) Climate change 2007: synthesis report. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), GenevaGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Australian Academy of Science (2010) The science of climate change: questions and answers, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Australian Government: Prime Minister’s Task Group on energy efficiency (2010) Report of the Prime Minister’s Task Group on energy efficiency, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Taylors Wines (2009) Taylors Eighty Acres 100% carbon neutral based on an ISO 14044 compliant life cycle assessment model—a world first. (cited 15 February 2010)
  59. 59.
    Taylors Wines (2010) Taylors Wines declared world’s best “Green Brand Launch’’ at the Drinks Business Green Awards 2010. (cited 15 February 2010)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leanne Fitzpatrick
    • 1
  • Karli Verghese
    • 2
  • Helen Lewis
    • 2
  1. 1.Birubi InnovationDandenongAustralia
  2. 2.Centre for DesignRMIT UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations