Natural Orifice Surgery: Surgical Procedures Through Natural Body Openings

  • Michael Stark
  • Tahar Benhidjeb


The art of surgery has a long history in human culture, and it is important to follow its development to understand its current state. Different surgical procedures were practiced in ancient times, as can been shown by archaeological findings in countries with a rich history of high culture, such as China and Egypt.


Obstructive Sleep Apnea Vaginal Hysterectomy Uterine Fibroid Veress Needle Single Port 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Stark
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tahar Benhidjeb
    • 3
    • 1
  1. 1.The New European Surgical Academy (NESA)BerlinGermany
  2. 2.The USP Hospital Palmaplanas of MallorcaMallorcaSpain
  3. 3.Department of General, Visceral and Thoracic SurgeryUniversity Medical Center Hamburg-EppendorfHamburgGermany

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