Advertisement

The Development of Medical Databases

  • Morris F. Collen
Chapter
Part of the Health Informatics book series (HI)

Abstract

Since the early 1900s physicians have followed the teachings of the famed clinician, W. Osler, to study and learn from their patients and from the medical records of their patients, in order to improve their knowledge of diseases. In the 2000s, as in the 1900s, physicians continue to initiate this learning process by taking a history of the patient’s medical problems, performing a physical examination of the patient, and then recording the history and physical examination findings in the patient’s medical record. To confirm a preliminary diagnosis and to rule-out other possible diagnoses, physicians refer the patients for selected tests and procedures that usually involve the clinical laboratory, radiology, and other clinical-support services. After reviewing the information received from these services, physicians usually arrive at a more certain diagnosis, and then prescribe appropriate treatment. For an unusual or a complex medical problem, physicians may refer the patient to appropriate clinical specialists, and may also review evidence-based reports of appropriate therapies by consulting relevant medical literature and bibliographic databases.

Keywords

Relational Database Data Warehouse Medical Database Structure Query Language International Business Machine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Anderson J. Data dictionaries – a way forward to write meaning and terminology into medical information systems. Methods Inf Med. 1986;25:137–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson JB, Jay SJ. The diffusion of computer applications in medicine: network location and innovation adoption. Proc SCAMC. 1984:549–52.Google Scholar
  3. ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) E 1238–88. Standard specifications for transferring clinical laboratory data messages between independent computer systems. Philadelphia: ASTM; 1988.Google Scholar
  4. ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) E 1239–88. Standard guide for description of reservation/registration-admission, discharge, transfer (R-ADT) systems for automated patient care information systems. Philadelphia: ASTM; 1988.Google Scholar
  5. ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) E 1238–88. Standard specifications for transferring clinical observations between independent computer systems. Philadelphia: ASTM; 1989. Revision November 30.Google Scholar
  6. Bakken S, Campbell KE, Cimino JJ, et al. Toward vocabulary domain specifications for health level 7-coded data elements. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2000;7:333–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ball MJ, Hammon GL. Overview of computer applications in a variety of health care areas. CRC Crit Rev Bioeng. 1975a;2(2):183–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ball MJ, Hammon GL. Maybe a network of mini-computers can fill your data systems needs. Hosp Financ Manage. 1975b;29(4):48–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Barnett GO. Massachusetts general hospital computer system. In: Collen MF, editor. Hospital computer systems. New York: Wiley; 1974. p. 517–45.Google Scholar
  10. Barnett GO, Souder D, Beaman P, Hupp J. MUMPS – an evolutionary commentary. Comput Biomed Res. 1981;14:112–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barsalou T, Wiederhold G. A cooperative hypertext interface to relational databases. Proc SCAMC. 1989:383–7.Google Scholar
  12. Blaine GI. Networks and distributed systems. A primer. Proc MEDINFO. 1983:1118–21.Google Scholar
  13. Blois MS, Henley RR. Strategies in the planning of hospital information systems. In: Journee D’Informatique Medicale. Toulouse: Institut de Recherche d’Informatique et d’Automatique; 1971. p. 89–98.Google Scholar
  14. Blois MS, Wasserman AI. The integration of hospital information systems. Journee D’Informatique Medicale, Toulouse; also: Tech Report #4, Office of Med Inform Systems. San Francisco: University of California; 1974.Google Scholar
  15. Blum RL. Machine representation of clinical causal relationships. Proc MEDINFO. 1983b:652–6.Google Scholar
  16. Blum BI. A history of computers, chap 1. In: Blum BI, editor. Clinical information systems. New York: Springer; 1986a. p. 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Blum BI. Programming languages, chap 4. In: Blum BI, editor. Clinical information systems. New York: Springer; 1986b. p. 112–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Blum BI. Design methods for clinical systems. Proc SCAMC. 1986c:309–15.Google Scholar
  19. Blum BI, Duncan K, editors. A history of medical informatics. New York: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co; 1990. p. 1–450.Google Scholar
  20. Brandt CA, Morse R, Mathews K, et al. Metadata-driven creation of data marts from an EAV-modeled clinical research database. Int J Med Inform. 2002;65:225–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bryan M. 1988: the year of the data base. Personal Comput. 1988;12(1):100–9.Google Scholar
  22. Camp HN, Ridley ML, Walker HK. THERESA: a computerized medical consultant based on the patient record. Proc MEDINFO. 1983:612–4.Google Scholar
  23. Campell-Kelly M. Computing. Sci Am. 2009;301:63–9.Google Scholar
  24. Chen RS, Nadkarni P, Marenco L, et al. Exploring performance issues for a clinical database using an entity-attribute-value representation. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2000;5:475–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Codd EF. A relational model of data for large shared data banks. Comm ACM. 1970;13:377–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Codd EF. Further normalization of the data base relational model. In: Rustin R, editor. Database systems. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall; 1972. p. 33–64.Google Scholar
  27. Codd EF. Extending the data base relational model to capture more meaning. ACM Trans Database Syst. 1979;4:397–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Codd EF, Codd SB, Salley CT. Providing OLAP (On-line Analytical Processing) to User-Analysts: an IT mandate. San Jose: Codd and Date, Inc; 1993.Google Scholar
  29. Collen MF. Origins of medical informatics. West J Med. 1986;145:778–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Collen M. Clinical research databases – a historical review. J Med Syst. 1990;14:323–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Collen MF. The origins of informatics. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 1994;1:91–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Collen MF. A history of medical informatics in the United States. Bethesda/Indianapolis: American Medical Informatics Assn/Bookscraft; 1995.Google Scholar
  33. Coltri A. Databases in health care, chap 11. In: Lehman HP, Abbott PA, Roderer NK, et al., editors. Aspects of electronic health record systems. 2nd ed. New York: Springer; 2006. p. 225–51.Google Scholar
  34. Connolly TM, Begg CE. Database management systems: a practical approach to design, implementation, and management. 2nd ed. New York: Addison-Wesley; 1999.Google Scholar
  35. Davis LS. Prototype for future computer medical records. Comput Biomed Res. 1970;3:539–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Davis LS. A system approach to medical information. Methods Inf Med. 1973;12:1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Davis LS, Terdiman J. The medical data base, chap 4. In: Collen MF, editor. Hospital computer systems. New York: Wiley; 1974. p. 52–79.Google Scholar
  38. Davis LS, Collen MF, Rubin L, Van Brunt EE. Computer-stored medical record. Comput Biomed Res. 1968;1:452–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dawson J. A family of models. Byte. 1989;4:277–86.Google Scholar
  40. Deshpande AM, Brandt C, Nadkarni PM. Temporal query of attribute-value-patient data: utilizing the constraints of clinical studies. Int J Med Inform. 2003;70:59–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dick RS, Steen EB. Essential technologies for computer-based patient records: a summary. In: Ball MJ, Collen MF, editors. Aspects of the computer-based patient record. New York: Springer; 1992. p. 229–61.Google Scholar
  42. Dinu V, Nadkarni P. Guidelines for the effective use of entity-attribute-value modeling for biomedical databases. Int J Med Inform. 2007;76:769–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Duke JR, Bowers GH. Scope and sites of electronic health record systems. In: Lehman HP, Abbott PA, Roderer NK, et al., editors. Aspects of electronic health record systems. New York: Springer; 2006. p. 89–114.Google Scholar
  44. Fischetti L, Schloeffel P, Blair JS, Henderson ML. Standards. In: Lehmann HP, Abbott PA, Roderer NK, et al., editors. Aspects of Electronic Health Record Systems. New York: Springer; 2006. p. 252–82.Google Scholar
  45. Frawley WJ, Piatetsky-Shapito G, Matheus CJ. Knowledge discovery in databases: an overview. AI Magazine. 1992;13:57–70.Google Scholar
  46. Friedman C, Hripcsak G, Johnson SB, et al. A generalized relational schema for an integrated clinical patient database. Proc SCAMC. 1990:335–9.Google Scholar
  47. Fries JF. The chronic disease data bank: first principles to future directions. J Med Philos. 1984;9:161–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gabrieli ER. Standardization of medical informatics (special issue). J Clin Comput. 1985;14: 62–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Garfolo BT, Keltner L. A computerized disease register. Proc MEDINFO. 1983:909–12.Google Scholar
  50. Glichlich RE, Dreyer NA, eds. Registries for evaluating patient outcomes: a user’s guide. AHRQ Pub. # 07-EHC001-1. Rockville: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2007(Apr). p. 1–233.Google Scholar
  51. Graves J. Design of a database to support intervention modeling in nursing. Proc MEDINFO. 1986:240–2.Google Scholar
  52. Greenes RA, Papillardo AN, Marble CW, Barnett GO. Design and implementation of a clinical data management system. Comput Biomed Res. 1969;2:469–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Grossman JH, Barnett GO, Koepsell TD, et al. An automated medical record system. JAMA. 1973;224:l6l6–1621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hammond WE, Stead WW, Feagin SJ, et al. Data base management system for ambulatory care. Proc SCAMC. 1977:173–87.Google Scholar
  55. Hammond WE, Stead WW, Straube MJ, Jelovsek FR. Functional characteristics of a computerized medical record. Methods Inf Med. 1980;19:157–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Hammond WE, Stead WW, Straube MJ. Planned networking for medical information systems. Proc SCAMC. 1985:727–31.Google Scholar
  57. Hlatky M. Using databases to evaluate therapy. Stat Med. 1991;10:647–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hripcsak G, Allen B, Cimino JJ, Lee R. Access to data: comparing AcessMed with Query by Review. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 1996;3:288–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Huff SM. Clinical data exchange standards and vocabularies for messages. Proc AMIA. 1998:62–7.Google Scholar
  60. Johnson SB. Generic data modeling for clinical repositories. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 1996;3:328–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Johnson SB. Extended SQL for manipulating clinical warehouse data. Proc AMIA. 1999:819–23.Google Scholar
  62. Kuznak PM, Kahane SN, Arsenlev M, et al. The role and design of an integrated clinical result database within a client-server networked hospital information system architecture. Proc SCAMC. 1987:789–95.Google Scholar
  63. Lindberg DAB. The growth of medical information systems in the United States. Lexington: Lexington Books; 1979.Google Scholar
  64. London JW. A computer solution to clinical and research computing needs. Proc SCAMC. 1985:722–26.Google Scholar
  65. Marrs KA, Kahn MG. Extending a clinical repository to include multiple sites. Proc AMIA. 1995:387–91.Google Scholar
  66. McCray AT, Sponsler JL, Brylawski B, Browne AC. The role of lexical knowledge in biomedical text understanding. Proc SCAMC. 1987:103–7.Google Scholar
  67. McDonald CJ. Standards for the transmission of diagnostic results from laboratory computers to office practice computers – an initiative. Proc SCAMC. 1983:123–4.Google Scholar
  68. McDonald CJ. Standards for the electronic transfer of clinical data: programs, promises, and the conductor’s wand. Proc SCAMC. 1990:09–14.Google Scholar
  69. McDonald CJ, Hammond WE. Standard formats for electronic transfer of clinical data. Editorial. Ann Intern Med. 1989;110:333–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. McDonald CJ, Hripsak GH. Data exchange standards for computer-based patient records. In: Ball MF, Collen MF, editors. Aspects of the computer-based patient record. New York: Springer; 1992. p. 157–64.Google Scholar
  71. McDonald CJ, Siu SL. The analysis of humongous databases: problems and promises. Stat Med. 1991;10:511–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. McDonald CJ, Wilson G, Blevins L, et al. The Regenstrief medical record system. Proc SCAMC. 1977a:168–9.Google Scholar
  73. McDonald CJ, Murray M, Jeris D, et al. A computer-based record and clinical monitoring system for ambulatory care. Am J Public Health. 1977b;67:240–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McDonald CJ, Blevins L, Glazener T, et al. Data base management, feedback control and the Regenstrief medical record. Proc SCAMC. 1982:52–60.Google Scholar
  75. McDonald CJ, Blevens L, Tierney WM, Martin DK. The Regenstrief medical records. MD Comput. 1988:34–47.Google Scholar
  76. Michalski RS, Baskin AB, Spackman KA. A logic-based approach to conceptual database analysis. Proc SCAMC. 1982:792–6.Google Scholar
  77. Miller RA, Kapoor WN, Peterson J. The use of relational databases as a tool for conducting clinical studies. Proc SCAMC. 1983:705–8.Google Scholar
  78. Moorman PW, Schuemie MJ, van der Lei J. An inventory of publications on electronic medical records revisited. Methods Inf Med. 2009;48:454–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Munoz F., Hersh W. MCM Generastors: a Java-based tool for generating medical metadata. Proc AMIA. 1998:648–52.Google Scholar
  80. Nadkarni PM, Cheung K. SQLGEN: a framework for rapid client-server database application development. Comput Biomed Res. 1995;28:479–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Nadkarni P, Marenco L. Easing the transition between attribute-value databases and conventional databases for scientific data. Proc AMIA. 2001:483–7.Google Scholar
  82. Nadkarni PM, Brandt C, Frawley S, et al. Managing attribute-value clinical trials data using ACT/DB client-server database system. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 1998;5:139–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Nadkarni PM, Marenco L, Chen R, et al. Organization of heterogeneous scientific data using the EAV/CR representation. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 1999;6:478–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Nadkarni PM, Brandt CM, Marenco L. WebEAV: automatic meta-driven generation of web interfaces to entity-attribute-value-databases. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2000;7:343–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Orthner HF. New communication technologies for integrating hospital information systems and their computer-based patient records, chap 11. In: Ball MJ, Collen MF, editors. Aspects of the computer-based patient record. New York: Springer; 1992. p. 176–200.Google Scholar
  86. Orthner HF. New communication technologies for hospital information systems. In: Bakker AR, Ball MJ, Scherrer JR, Willems JL, editors. Towards new hospital information systems. Amsterdam: North-Holland; 1998. p. 203–12.Google Scholar
  87. Pendse N. OLAP Omnipresent. Byte. 1998;111:751–6.Google Scholar
  88. Pendse N. Online analytical processing. Wikipedia. Retrieved in 2008. http://en.wikipedia:org/wiki/Online_analytical_processing.Google Scholar
  89. Pryor DB, Stead WW, Hammond WE, et al. Features of TMR for a successful clinical and research database. Proc SCAMC. 1982:79–83.Google Scholar
  90. Pryor TA, Gardner RM, Clayton PD, Warner HR. The HELP system. J Med Syst. 1983;7:87–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Robson D. Object-oriented software system. Byte. 1981;6:74–86.Google Scholar
  92. Rothrock JJ. ASTM: the standards make the pieces fit. Proc AAMSI Congress. 1989:327–35.Google Scholar
  93. Rutt TE. Work of IEEE P1157 medical interchange committee. Proc AAMSI Congress. 1989:403–22.Google Scholar
  94. Safran C, Chute CG. Exploration and exploitation of clinical databases. Int J Biomed Comput. 1995;39:151–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Simborg DW. Local area networks: why? what? what if? MD Comput. 1984;1:10–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Simborg DW. An emerging standard for health communications: the HL7 standard. Healthc Commun (HC&C). 1987;3:58–60.Google Scholar
  97. Smith B, Ceusters W. HL7 RIM: an incoherent standard. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2006;124:133–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Starr P. The social transformation of American medicine. New York: Basic Books; 1982.Google Scholar
  99. Stead WW, Hammond WE. Computer-based medical records: the centerpiece of TMR. MD Comput. 1988;5:48–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Stead WW, Wiederhold G, Gardner R, et al. Database systems for computer-based patient records. In: Ball MJ, Collen MF, editors. Aspects of the computer-based patient record. New York: Springer; 1992. p. 83–98.Google Scholar
  101. Taylor RW, Frank RL. CODASYL data base management systems. Comput Surv. 1976;8:67–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Terdiman J. Ambulatory care computer systems in office practice: a tutorial. Proc AMIA. 1982:195–201.Google Scholar
  103. Tolchin SG, Stewart RL. The distributed processing approach to hospital information processing. J Med Syst. 1981;5:345–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Tolchin SG, Blum BI, Butterfield MA. A system analysis method for a decentralized health care information system. Proc SCAMC. 1980:1479–84.Google Scholar
  105. Tolchin SG, Simborg DW, Stewart RL, et al. Implementation of a prototype generalized network technology for hospitals. Proc SCAMC. 1981a:942–8.Google Scholar
  106. Tolchin SG, Stewart RL, Kahn SA, et al. A prototype generalized network technology for hospitals. J Med Syst. 1982;6:359–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Tolchin SG, Barta W, Harkness K. The Johns Hopkins Hospital network. Proc SCAMC. 1985a:732–7.Google Scholar
  108. Tolchin SG, Arsenlev M, Barta WL, et al. Integrating heterogeneous systems using local network technologies and remote procedure call protocols. Proc SCAMC. 1985b:748–9.Google Scholar
  109. Tuck D, O’Connell R, Gershkovitch P, Cowan J. An approach to object-relational mapping in bioscience domains. Proc AMIA Symp. 2002:820–4.Google Scholar
  110. VanName ML, Catchings B. SQL: a database language sequel to dBase. Byte. 1989;14:175–82.Google Scholar
  111. Walters RF. Microprocessors as intelligent front-end devices for medical information systems. Med Inform. 1979;4:139–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Warner HR. Patient data file, chap 3. In: Computer-assisted medical decision-making. New York: Academic; 1979. p. 102–23.Google Scholar
  113. Warner HR. History of medical informatics at Utah. In: Blum BI, Duncan K, editors. A history of medical informatics. New York: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co; 1990. p. 357–66.Google Scholar
  114. Warner HR, Olmsted CM, Rutherford BD. HELP – a program for medical decision-making. Comput Biomed Res. 1972;5:65–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Warner HR, Morgan JD, Pryor TA, et al. HELP – a self-improving system for medical decision-making. Proc MEDINFO. 1974:989–93.Google Scholar
  116. Wasserman AI. Minicomputers may maximize data processing. Hospitals. 1977;51:119–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Wasserman AI. Interactive development environments for information systems. Proc SCAMC. 1986:316–25.Google Scholar
  118. Wess BP. Distributed computer networks in support of complex group practices. Proc SCAMC. 1978:469–77.Google Scholar
  119. Wiederhold G. Database technology in health care. J Med Syst. 1981;5:175–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Wiederhold G. Databases for ambulatory care. Proc AMIA Symp. 1982:79–85.Google Scholar
  121. Wiederhold G. Modeling databases. Inf Sci. 1983;29:115–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Wiederhold G. Databases, A tutorial. Proc AAMSI. 1984:423–30.Google Scholar
  123. Wiederhold G, Fries GF, Weye S. Structural organization of clinical data bases. Proc AFIPS Conf. 1975;44:479–85.Google Scholar
  124. Wiederhold G, Walker MG, Blum RL, et al. Acquisition of medical knowledge from medical records. Proc Benutzer-gruppenseminar Med Syst. 1987:213–4.Google Scholar
  125. Zeichner ML, Brusil OJ, Tolchin SG. Distributed processing architecture for a hospital information system. Proc SCAMC. 1979:859–65.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Morris F. Collen
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of ResearchOaklandUSA

Personalised recommendations